Saturday, July 18, 2020

Pros and Cons of Raising the Minimum Wage

Pros and Cons of Raising the Minimum Wage WHAT I? MINIMUM W?G?? Basically, the idea of increasing the minimum wage should be welcoming to all parties’ right?We are talking about a raise in income here.Everybody wants a raise, at least that’s what most people think.That’s why it might be surprising that some people think it’s a bad idea to raise wages.But they might have a point.The topic on whether the minimum wage should be raised or not has been a hot topic in recent years, both in the political scene and in the media. Both Republicans and Democrats have spent money lobbying for their own ideas regarding the matter.Some of these ideas are objective, while other are pretty subjective. Everybody has an opinion regarding the matter, I have a feeling you have one too.But before we begin, what is “what is a minimum wage?”A minimum w?g? i? th? l?w??t remuneration th?t ?m?l???r? can l?g?ll? pay their workers.Equivalently, it is the ?ri?? floor below whi?h w?rk?r? may n?t ??ll th?ir labour.Although minimum wage laws ?r ? in effect in many juri?di?ti?n? in th? United States, diff?r?n??? ?f opinion ?xi?t ?b?ut th? b?n?fit? ?nd dr?wb??k? of a minimum wage.Supporters of the minimum wage ??? it increases th? ?t?nd?rd ?f living of w?rk?r?, r?du??? ??v?rt?, r?du??? in??u?lit?, ?nd b???t? morale.In ??ntr??t, ????n?nt? ?f the minimum wage ??? it in?r????? ??v?rt?, increases un?m?l??m?nt (??rti?ul?rl? ?m?ng unskilled ?r inexperienced workers) ?nd i? d?m?ging t? bu?in?????, because ?x????iv?l? high minimum w?g?? require bu?in????? t? r?i?? the prices ?f their product ?r ??rvi?? to accommodate the ?xtr? ?x??n?? of ???ing a higher w?g?.Wh? d? we b?li?v??Well, in this ?rti?l?, we h??? t? l??k at th? ?r?? and cons ?f minimum w?g? raise m?r? critically.But fir?t, an ?v?rvi?wWh?n th? Unit?d St?t?? first set a minimum w?g? through th? F?ir L?b?ur St?nd?rd? Act ?f 1938, th? hourly r?t? ??t ?t 25 cents.Prior t? th?t, during th? Great D??r???i?n, ????l? f??ing up to a 25 percent unemployment w?r? d????r?t? f?r w?rk, ? ? ?m?l???r? could t?k? ?dv?nt?g? and pay v?r? littl?.The minimum w?g? w?? then established t? prevent th?t ?x?l?it?ti?n, said David Cooper, ??ni?r ???n?mi? ?n?l??t ?nd d??ut? dir??t?r ?t E??n?mi? Analysis and R????r?h Network ?t th? E??n?mi? P?li?? In?titut?.With?ut a w?g? fl??r, employers w?uld continue to pay l??? and less, destroying th? purchasing power ?f th? consumers wh? w?uld m?k? less money, C????r ??id. The minimum w?g? then h?l?? mitig?t? th?t imb?l?n?? ?f power between ?m?l???r? ?nd l?w-w?g? w?rk?r?.Th?t 1938 rul? und?rw?nt r?vi?i?n?, in?luding a periodic raising of th? federal minimum wage, which rests at ?n h?url? r?t? ?f $7.25, wh?r? it w?? ??t in 2009, according t? th? Department ?f L?b?ur.S?m? ?t?t?? and cities took it u??n themselves t? raise th?ir minimum wages to mu?h high?r rates, ?u?h ?? New Y?rk City, which shouldcurrently h?v? a $15-??r-h?ur w?g? (b? 2018).As muni?i??liti??, uni?n? ?nd advocates push f?r a high?r minimum w?g? to reduce ??v?rt?, m?n? bu?in??? leaders ?u?h b??k out ?f fear th?t th?ir bu?in????? will fl?und?r wh?n h?ving t? in?r???? ???r?ll costs.Alth?ugh w?g?? rose by $7 ?in?? 1938, ?ur?h??ing ??w?r diff?r? dr?m?ti??ll? ?v?r tim?. Wh?n ?dju?ting f?r infl?ti?n, t?d??’? f?d?r?l minimum w?g? i? about th? same ?? in th? 1950?.At it? high??t point in 1968, th? minimum w?g? ??u?ll?d $10.90 in 2015 d?ll?r?, m?r? th?n $3 ?ff from ?urr?nt ???.Adv???t?? f?r high?r w?g?? ??? t?d??’? minimum wage i? n?t a living wage. “Part ?f th? ?r?bl?m i? th?t w?’v? l?t the minimum w?g? erode f?r ?? l?ng that th?t g?? h?? gr?wn ?ub?t?nti?ll? ?u?h th?t now it’? hard t? even consider bringing th? f?d?r?l w?g? fl??r up t? a level th?t would ?ll?w ??m??n? t? h?v? a d???nt quality ?f lif? wh?r?v?r they may liv?,” C????r ??id.When the minimum wage doesn’t keep ???? with inflation, its ??w?r ?r?d??. “It’s worth less ?nd l??? ?nd l???,” ??id S?lvi? All?gr?tt?, l?b?ur ???n?mi?t ?nd ??-?h?ir of th? Centre ?n W?g? and Employment D?n?mi?? ?t th? University ?f C?lif?rni?, B?rk?l??. “And d?n’t f?rg?t th?t th??? l?w-w?g? workers t?d??, ??m??r?d to th?ir ??unt?r??rt? ?f d???d?? ago, ?r? m?r? ?du??t?d, th??’r? m?r? ?r?du?tiv?, th? ???n?mi? ?i? h?? expanded gr??tl?, ??t th??? l?w-w?g? w?rk?r? ?r? m?king l??? today th?n ?imil?r w?rk?r? did several d???d?? ?g?.”Trends lik? this ?r? wh? unions ?nd ??tivi?t gr?u?? m?r?h and l?gi?l?t? f?r high?r minimum w?g??.THE PROS AND CONS OF RAISING THE MINIMUM WAGETh? debate ?v?r raising the minimum w?g? has b??n a h?t t??i? ?ft?r Pr??id?nt Obama ?x?l?in?d in hi? 2014 St?t? ?f th? Uni?n Address th?t he int?nd? t? r?i?? th? minimum w?g? from $7.25 t? $10.10 ??r hour, ?n in?r???? ?f over 40 percent.Whil? the Pr??id?nt ?nd his supporters ?l?im th?t thi? in?r???? w?uld gr??tl? b?n?fit th? economy ?nd r??ult in n? loss ?f jobs, th? opposition ?l?im? that thi? would b? d?trim?nt?l to minimum wage ?m?l?????, resulting in 500,000 f?w?r j?b?.In th? following ?rti?l?, we’re outlining th? pros ?nd cons of r?i?ing th? minimum w?g?.The PR??Th? argument:Th? F?d?r?l minimum wage ?f $7.25 ??r hour i? far t?? l?w.A full-time w?rk?r â€" 40 h?ur? per w??k f?r 52 w??k? â€" ??rning th? minimum wage i? gu?r?nt??d to liv? ?t th? poverty l?v?l.Raising th? minimum wage i? g??d economics, g??d ??li??, and g??d f?r w?rk?r?. It w?uld r?du?? in??m? in??u?lit? and ??v?rt? whil? boosting gr?wth, with?ut increasing unemployment.A high?r minimum w?g? would ?l?? r?du?? th? F?d?r?l budget d?fi?it by l?w?ring spending on ?ubli? ???i?t?n?? ?r?gr?m? ?nd in?r???ing t?x revenue.Since firm? ?r? ?ll?w?d t? pay poverty-level w?g?? t? 3.6 milli?n people â€" 5 percent ?f th? workforce â€" th??? w?rk?r? mu?t r?l? ?n Federal in??m? ?u???rt ?r?gr?m?. This m??n? th?t t?x????r? have b??n ?ub?idizing bu?in?????, whose ?r?fit? h?v? ri??n to r???rd l?v?l? ?v?r th? past 30 ???r?.Adjusted f?r inflation, the ?urr?nt minimum wage is ?t the same level ?? it w?? in 1956 ?nd reached it? m?ximum inflation-adjusted v alue in 1968, when it was worth $10.89 in today’s d?ll?r?.H?d the 1968 minimum wage grown at th? ??m? r?t? ?? the ???t ?f living it w?uld b? $16 t?d??.And if it gr?w in ?t?? with w?rk?r ?r?du?tivit?, th? minimum w?g? w?uld b? $22 today â€" tri?l? its current l?v?l. Y?t whil? the v?lu? of the minimum w?g? h?? eroded b? 67 percent, ??r??r?t? ?r?fit? have gr?wn b? ?v?r 300 ??r??nt.Th? F?ir Minimum W?g? A?t would r?i?? the minimum w?g? to $10.10 ?v?r thr?? ???r?, and w?uld boost living ?t?nd?rd? f?r ?v?r 25 million w?rk?r?, ?nd m?n? more du? t? the ripple effect.All w?rk?r? ??rning between th? ?urr?nt minimum wage of $7.25 ?nd $10.10 w?uld g?t ?n imm?di?t? b???t in their income.But, so too w?uld workers ??rning ju?t above th? n?w minimum w?g?. And, to m?int?in int?rn?l ??? ???l??, ?? w?uld th? w?rk?r? ju?t above th?m, ?nd so ?n.The ripple ?ff??t ??n boost wages f?r l?w-in??m? w?rk?r? u? t? 25 percent m?r? than th? n?w minimum w?g?, ?r?viding a huge ?nd ??r?l? needed economic stimulus. $10.10, h?w?v?r, is n?t enough to liv? a d???nt lif?.Full-tim? w?rk?r? w?uld still remain n??r th? poverty l?v?l.What is needed is a living wage â€" a w?g? that ensures full-tim? w?rk?r? ??n ?u???rt a f?mil? without government ???i?t?n??.Although ??tim?t?? v?r? by location, ?n h?url? w?g? between $15 ?nd $25 w?uld be enough t? live a d???nt lif? f?r a ?m?ll f?mil?.Many critics think that r?i?ing th? minimum w?g? will hurt ?r??i??l? those w?rk?r? th?t thi? ??li?? i? d??ign?d t? h?l? b???u?? firm? will l?? off w?rk?r? t? ??v? ?n labour ???t?.R?i?ing the minimum wage, ?riti?? ?rgu?, will create more unemployment ?nd more reliance ?n public ???i?t?n??.But th?r? is no ?vid?n?? to ?u???rt thi? ?l?im: ?t?t?? with a minimum wage higher th?n th? F?d?r?l minimum have ?x??ri?n??d faster rates of job gr?wth th?n other ?t?t??.H?w i? thi? ????ibl??When th? minimum w?g? rises, it is u?u?ll? ?h???d in ?v?r tim?, giving firms time t? ?dju?t.As wages ri??, firms b???m? m?r? ?r?du?tiv? ?nd ?ffi?i?nt b ecause high?r wages reduce turn?v?r, ?b??nt??i?m, ?nd hiring ?nd tr?ining ???t?.Each time a w?rk?r ?uit? a f??t-f??d job, wh?r? turnover r?t?? are exceptionally high, it costs the ?m?l???r $4,700 t? replace them. U?ing the l?w ??tim?t? ?f a living w?g?, raising th? minimum w?g? t? $15 w?uld save firm? a total of $2.1 billion, ?ll?wing them to ?v?id l???ff? and ?ff?rd the higher ???t?.An?th?r reason high?r minimum w?g?? d? n?t l??d t? increased un?m?l??m?nt i? that firm? ??n compensate for th? high?r labour ???t? by raising ?ri???.A $15 minimum w?g? w?uld ??u?? firms wh? ?m?l?? l?w-w?g? w?rk?r? t? r?i?? prices by ?nl? thr?? ??r??nt.In?t??d ?f turning t? l???ff?, firm? ??uld also accept ?lightl? l?w?r ?r?fit? in th? ?h?rt t?rm ?nd, instead ?f engaging in ?t??k buybacks which ?nri?h stockholders, ?h?r? with their workforce in the fruit? of this gr?wth.But, ?v?r th? l?ng?r t?rm, ?? incomes ri??, ??n?um?ti?n will in?r???? leading, ultim?t?l?, to high?r profits.As bu?in????? ?x??ri?n?? gr eater d?m?nd and ??l??, they ?r? lik?l? t? hir? more w?rk?r? ?v?r tim?.This w?uld ??rv? ?? a stimulus that ??uld h?l? workers, firms, ?nd the economy ?? a whole.Sm?ll firm? w?uld face a ????i?l ??t of ?h?ll?ng?? ?in?? th?? operate with thinn?r ?r?fit margins.With the additional tax r?v?nu? g?n?r?t?d b? higher incomes ?nd in?r????d gr?wth, coupled with r?du??d ???nding ?n in??m? ?u???rt ?r?gr?m? f?r l?w-w?g? workers, small bu?in????? ??uld b? given tax credits to ?ff??t th? cost ?f a high?r minimum wage, ?n?bling th?m t? ?v?id layoffs.B? f?iling t? ?n?ur? the minimum wage k???? pace with th? ???t ?f living ?nd w?rk?r productivity, ??li??m?k?r? h?v? ?r??t?d a ?itu?ti?n where full-tim? workers ??rning th? minimum wage h?v? to r?l? ?n ?ubli? ???i?t?n?? t? make ?nd? m??t.Pr?gr?m? ?u?h as th? E?rn?d Income Tax Cr?dit, M?di??id, Su??l?m?nt?l Nutrition A??i?t?n??, and T?m??r?r? A??i?t?n?? t? Needy Families ???t t?x????r? billi?n? ?f d?ll?r? ???h ???r.Half ?f thi? ???nding goes t? w?rking ?? ??l? ??rning l??? than $10.10 per hour. Raising the minimum w?g? t? this ?m?unt w?uld l?w?r welfare r?ll? b? 1.7 milli?n people and r?du?? g?v?rnm?nt spending ?n welfare ?r?gr?m? b? $7.6 billi?n ??r year.Th? minimum wage h?? been t?? l?w f?r t?? long. In ?n era wh?n Wall Street b?nu??? are twice the ?m?unt ??rn?d by ?ll minimum w?g? w?rk?r?, it is clear th?t bu?in????? ??n ?ff?rd t? b???t th? ??? ?f th?ir l?w??t ??id w?rk?r?.140 cities h?v? ?n??t?d living w?g? ?rdin?n??? ?nd 29 states and the Di?tri?t of C?lumbi? have a minimum wage higher than the F?d?r?l minimum, ?nd n?n? ?f th??? ???n?mi?? h?v? imploded.R?i?ing the minimum w?g? i? g??d ???n?mi?? and g??d ??li??.It is tim? that businesses ?t?rt paying their f?ir ?h?r? ?f w?g?? ?? that taxpayers don’t h?v? pick u? the slackHere are the Bullet Points:E??n?mi? Stimulu?: Raising th? minimum w?g? m??n? minimum w?g? w?rk?r? h?v? m?r? m?n?? t? ?x??nd which m??n? more money ri??l?? throughout the ???n?m? as minimum wage employees ?r? ?b l? t? ???nd m?r?.M?r? ????rtunit? f?r j?b?: If th??? minimum w?g? employees ?r? ???nding more, th?n bu?in????? ?r? earning more ?nd n??d to hire m?r? ?m?l????? to k??? u? with th? increased sales fr?m th? minimum wage employees wh? are bu?ing m?r?.R?du??d Ex??n?? for S??i?l Programs: Em?l????? ?urviving at minimum wage are ?l?? ?ft?n the ??m? ????l? wh? mu?t r?l? on ?dditi?n?l ?u???rt of government run social programs to support themselves ?nd their families ?n ?u?h a ?m?ll ?m?unt ?f income. R?i?ing minimum w?g? means some ?f th??? ????l? w?uld b? able t? b?tt?r support themselves with?ut leaning ?? h??vil? ?n ???i?l ?r?gr?m? ?nd thi? w?uld ultimately m??n l?w?r taxes ?r a r??ll???ti?n ?f th??? fund? t? ?u???rt ?th?r n??d?.D??r????d Turn?v?r Rate: Em?l????? wh? ?r? making a high?r minimum w?g? f??l more comfortable and ??ti?fi?d in th?ir minimum w?g? j?b? meaning th?? are less likely t? quit. This means there w?uld b? a l?w?r turn?v?r rate, whi?h r??ult? in f?w?r expenses to hire an d tr?in new ?m?l?????.Inflation: The f?d?r?l minimum w?g? needs to b? r?i??d in ?rd?r t? ????unt for inflation, whi?h r?i??? ?v?r? year ?nd th? minimum w?g? h?? only been ri??n three tim?? in th? past three d???d??.More money for social security: Slightl? m?r? r?v?nu? f?r th? g?v?rnm?nt would b? g?n?r?t?d fr?m ???r?ll t?x?? f?r ???i?l ???urit?.Low impact on unemployment: Studi?? ?h?w graduated increases in the minimum wage h?v? a low im???t ?n un?m?l??m?nt.Reduced gender and race based income inequality: In?r???ing th? minimum w?g? ??uld help r?du?? g?nd?r- ?nd r???-b???d in??m? in?qu?lit?.Poverty reduction:  A ??r??n wh? w?rk? full tim? earning th? f?d?r?l minimum wage would m?k? $15,080 a ???r before t?x??, which i? ju?t b?r?l? ?b?v? th? ??v?rt? level. A f?mil? ?f f?ur with two working ?dult? earning minimum wage w?uld b? living below th? ??v?rt? l?v?l.More money in peoples pockets: B? ?utting m?r? m?n?? in ????l?’? ???k?t?, th?r? will b? m?r? ???nding in th? ???n?m?.Minimum wag e should keep up with inflation: Inflation ri??? ?v?r? ???r, but th? f?d?r?l minimum wage h?? b??n raised ju?t thr?? tim?? in th? last three decades. Th? f?d?r?l minimum w?g? would need t? b? $10.74 in order to ????unt for inflation over the ???t 40 ???r?.The ??N?The ?rgum?nt:Raising the minimum w?g? ???t? jobs.A r???rt b? the Am?ri??n Action F?rum â€" a policy in?titut? offering r????r?h, ?n?l??i? and ??luti?n? to ??li?? ?r?bl?m? â€" found a $1 in?r???? in the minimum wage leads t? a 1.48 ??r??nt increase in un?m?l??m?nt.H?w ??n a $1 r?i?? h?v? ?u?h n?g?tiv? ??n??qu?n????It i? ???i?r to und?r?t?nd if ??u put yourself in a bu?in??? ?wn?r’? ?h???.Im?gin? ??u opened a small retail ?t?r? in Louisiana l??t ???r.Y?u make ?n?ugh m?n?? to r?m?in open, but ?? a n?w bu?in??? tr?ing to t?k? ?ff, you ?r? ?n a v?r? tight budg?t.Y?u h?v? ???r?xim?t?l? $42,000 a ???r t? ???nd ?n labour, which you divid? b?tw??n 5 part-time employees.E??h w?rk?r ?l??k? ?b?ut 20 h?ur? a w??k at minimum wage, ?? a fter ??u f??t?r in th? t?x?? you have t? ??? ?n t?? of ???h dollar, the annual ???t ?f your ?m?l????? i? ?b?ut $41,500.A $1 in?r???? in the minimum wage will increase l?b?ur costs b? n??rl? $6,000 a year, m?ving th? ?nnu?l cost ?f your employees t? th? n?ighb?urh??d of $47,200.Y?u d? n?t h?v? th? budg?t to accommodate thi? ?xtr? $5,200, ?? wh?t do ??u d??Th??? high?r labour costs will f?r?? ??m? employers to find cheaper w??? t? get the job d?n?.Employees that ?r? n?t essential could be l?id ?ff, or ??m?ut?r?, ?u?h ?? ??lf-?h??k?ut m??hin?r?, ??uld replace the role of ????l? in the w?rk?l???.D??tr??ing j?b? i? not a productive w?? to fight ??v?rt?.Secondly a minimum w?g? in?r???? ??uld make th? ?t?t? less ??m??titiv?.If the minimum w?g? i? increased, d? n?t ???um? that l?w-???ing jobs will b? all that is at ?t?k?. The repercussions ??uld b? much greater.In th? south, T?x??, Mi??i??i??i, Al?b?m?, T?nn????? and K?ntu?k? d? not h?v? minimum wages ?b?v? th? f?d?r?l minimum.If a bu?in??? r?li?? ?n a l?rg? numb?r of minimum w?g? ?m?l?????, will it l???t? ?r remain in Louisiana when ?? m?n? other ?t?t?? in it? r?gi?n have lower labour ???t??If a business r?l???t??, th?t puts ?ll ?m?l????? at risk ?f l??ing their j?b, n?t ju?t th??? making minimum wage.And if a bu?in??? i? l??king to open or ?x??nd in th? ??uth???t, and plans t? depend on m?n? low-wage ?m?l?????, even a min?r in?r???? to L?ui?i?n?’? minimum wage could send th? ?t?t? t? th? back of th? li?t. L??ing bu?in????? â€" ?nd j?b? â€" ??rt?inl? will n?t lift people ?b?v? th? ??v?rt? lin?.R?i?ing the minimum w?g? will h?v? a marginal ?ff??t on th? ???r. A???rding t? a  r???rt b? th? H?rit?g? F?und?ti?n, ?nl? 22 ??r??nt ?f minimum w?g? ??rn?r? live b?l?w th? ??v?rt? lin?.R?th?r, it i? m??tl? ?tud?nt? wh? ???u?? l?w paying j?b?.The Heritage F?und?ti?n’? r???rt f?und about 62 ??r??nt of minimum wagers are ?nr?ll?d in school during f?ll, wint?r ?nd spring.Furth?r, th? report noted about 1/3 ?f minimum wage ??rn? r? h?v? not fini?h?d high ??h??l, about 1/4 ?nl? h?v? th?ir high ??h??l degree ?nd ?b?ut 2/5 have taken ??ll?g? ?l?????, but n?t ??t gr?du?t?d (many in this ??t?g?r? ?r? college ?tud?nt? working ??rt-tim?).So whil? r?i?ing th? minimum w?g? m?? ?r m?? n?t lift ????l? above the ??v?rt? lin?, it m?? in?t??d set m?n? ?tud?nt? back b? ???ting them th? ????rtunit? t? g?in w?rk experience that could h?l? them ??rn high?r salaries after they ??m?l?t? their ?du??ti?n â€" ?x??ri?n?? th?t could ultim?t?l? k??? th?m ?b?v? th? poverty line later in lif?.Th? b?n?fit? ?f in?r???ing the minimum w?g? m?? be neutralized b? a high?r ???t ?f living t??.Th? IHS Gl?b?l In?ight macroeconomic m?d?l â€" ?ft?n used b? government ?g?n?i??, financial in?tituti?n? and m?nuf??tur?r? wh?n m?king economic forecasts â€" ?h?w? increases in l?b?ur ???t? are ?ft?n ?????d onto ??n?um?r?.For ?x?m?l?, f?ll?wing a 14 ??r??nt increase to the minimum wage in C?lif?rni?, Chipotle raised their prices by 14 ??r??nt.Wh? does th i? h????n?Back t? the r?t?il ?t?r? ?wn?r scenario fr?m earlier.If ??u do n?t w?nt t? l?? off ?n? ?f ??ur employees ?r ?ut th?ir hours, ?nd you ??n’t m?k? ?ub?t?nti?l cuts t? other ?x??n???, ??u would have to bring in an additional $5,200-$6,000 a ???r.S?, ??ur ?ri??? would have t? in?r????.At b??t f?r l?w-w?g? w?rk?r?, th?? keep th?ir jobs, but ??? a proportionate high?r cost ?f living.Has ?n?thing r??ll? b??n ????m?li?h?d?And ?t w?r?t for them, if bu?in????? throughout th? ?t?t? ?r? t??ing ?r?und with raising prices ?nd cutting l?b?ur ?x??n???, some low-wage w?rk?r? ??uld b? put in ?n even w?r?? ?itu?ti?n.These w?rk?r? ??uld l??? th?ir j?b?, ?nd th?n f??? a higher ???t ?f living with in?r????? in ??n?um?r prices.Employers h?v? a b?tt?r und?r?t?nding of employee ?r?du?tivit? than th? g?v?rnm?nt.J?b? ?r? diff?r?nt.There are entry-level j?b? th?t r??uir? ?tt?nti?n to d?t?il ?r a l?t of paper work, ?nd ?th?r? th?t ?ff?r more free tim? ?nd fl?xibilit?.Sin?? diff?r?nt jobs require diff erent amounts ?f ?du??ti?n, ?kill, experience, ??n??ntr?ti?n, physical energy ?nd ??mmitm?nt, ?m?l???r? should be th? ones th?t d?t?rmin? h?w t? properly ??m??n??t? ?m?l?????.Investments are m?d? b???d on v?lu? produced.A bu?in??? ?wn?r i? in?lin?d t? ??? ?n ?m?l???? f?r th? v?lu? they will bring t? th? ??m??n?.Wh?n a bu?in??? pays workers b?l?w th?ir value, th?? can leave f?r b?tt?r opportunities ?nd the bu?in??? i? h?rm?d b? l??ing ?r?du?tiv? workers.C?nv?r??l?, if a bu?in??? pays w?rk?r? ?b?v? th?ir v?lu?, th? bu?in??? m?? l??? money.Whil? n?t perfect, this market i? th? b??t m??h?ni?m f?r w?g?? to b? f?irl? d?t?rmin?d.While ??m? ?t?t?? does h?v? ??ri?u? ?r?bl?m? arising from widespread ??v?rt?, r?i?ing th? minimum w?g? i? n?t a qui?k ?nd harmless fix.R?i?ing th? minimum w?g? risks ?utting individu?l?, bu?in????? ?nd th? ?ntir? state ???n?m? in a w?r?? position t? ?dv?n?? a goal â€" h?l?ing l?w income h?u??h?ld? â€" th?t may n?t ?v?n b? accomplished.More jobs ?nd ????rtuniti?? fo r ?dv?n??m?nt are found in business-friendly ?nvir?nm?nt?.Here are a Few of the Bullet Points:L???ff?: If ?n ?m?l???r h?? a tight ??m??n??ti?n budg?t ?nd th? minimum wage i? r?i??d, it means they can n? l?ng?r ??m??n??t? the same numb?r of ?m?l????? at a higher rate ?nd mu?t m?k? l???ff? to r?m?in within budg?t. So, whil? ??m? ?m?l????? may b? m?king ?lightl? m?r? m?n??, ?th?r? will b? l?ft un?m?l???d.Pri?? in?r????: Em?l???r? might r?i?? ?ri??? ?f their product in ?rd?r to g?n?r?t? enough income t? ?u???rt th?ir more highl? ??id minimum wage ?m?l?????, whi?h ??uld ultim?t?l? create a ri??l? effect for ?th?r shops ?nd industries, r??ulting in a slightly high?r ???t ?f living, r??ulting in another ?u?h to raise minimum w?g? again.F?w?r Hirings: If bu?in??? mu?t ??? th?ir minimum w?g? employees m?r?, th?? ??nn?t afford to hir? as m?n? ?m?l?????. A???rding t? a F?d?r?l R???rv? B?nk of Chi??g? ?tud?, “10 ??r??nt in?r???? in th? minimum w?g? l?w?r? low ?kill employment by 2 t? 4 percen t ?nd t?t?l r??t?ur?nt ?m?l??m?nt by 1 t? 3 ??r??nt.” Or in?t??d ?f hiring f?w?r employees, th? company m?? start ?ut??ur?ing j?b? t? ?m?l????? in ??untri?? that ?r? willing t? w?rk f?r mu?h l??? th?n $10.10 ??r h?ur, r??ulting in fewer j?b? for Am?ri??n?.Competition Will Intensify: If minimum w?g? increases, ?v?rl? qu?lifi?d individuals will be v?ing f?r minimum w?g? ???iti?n?, pushing ??ung?r, inexperienced workers out ?f th? running and r?bbing th?m of th?ir ????rtunit? t? g?in experience ?nd kn?wl?dg? t? build a r??um? f?r themselves ?nd ?nt?r th? w?rkf?r??.A??li?d In??n?i?t?ntl?: Many ?t?t?? h?v? their ?wn ??t minimum wages, whi?h are currently ?b?v? $7.25 ??r h?ur ?lr??d?. As ?f January 1, 2014, 21 ?t?t?? (?nd D.C.) have minimum w?g?? above $7.15 per h?ur (Washington b?ing the highest at $9.32 ??r h?ur), ?? the amount the national minimum wage is ??t at v?ri?? in ?ignifi??n?? fr?m ?t?t? t? state.Un?m?l??m?nt: If labour markets ?r? ??m??titiv?, a minimum w?g? ??uld ??u?? un?m ?l??m?nt b???u?? firms will d?m?nd less l?b?ur, and higher w?g?? may encourage m?r? w?rk?r? t? supply their labour.Firm? m?? b???m? uncompetitive: In ??m? cases, a higher minimum w?g? ??uld ?u?h up costs ??u?ing a firm t? go out of business b???u?? th?? m?? n?t b? able t? ?ff?rd w?g? ???t?. This might b? a ??rti?ul?r problem if the firm is competing in a gl?b?l m?rk?t ?nd high?r wage ???t? make th?m uncompetitive ??m??r?d t? l?w-w?g? cost ??untri??. F?r ?x?m?l?, a high?r minimum w?g? m?? ?n??ur?g? firm? t? m?nuf??tur? ?l?th?? in Chin? ?r T?iw?n wh?r? l?b?ur i? cheaper than th? UK.Cost-push infl?ti?n: A minimum wage can ??u?? ???t-?u?h infl?ti?n. Thi? i? b???u?? firm? f??? an in?r???? in costs whi?h ?r? likely to be ?????d ?n to consumers. Thi? is ?v?n m?r? lik?l? if w?g? differentials ?r? maintained.Bl??k m?rk?t: A minimum w?g? m?? in?r???? the number ?f ????l? w?rking ?n th? bl??k market so firm? can ?v?id ???ing the legal minimum.Poorest don’t benefit: A limit?ti?n ?f th? minimu m w?g? i? that it d???n’t in?r???? the incomes ?f th? l?w??t income gr?u??. This is b???u?? the ???r??t h?v? t? rely on b?n?fit? ?nd are th?r?f?r? n?t affected b? minimum w?g??.Limited impact on relative ??v?rt?: Many wh? benefit from th? minimum w?g? ?r? ????nd in??m? ??rn?r?, and th?r?f?r? th? h?u??h?ld i? unlikely t? b? below th? ??v?rt? line. A household with a ?ingl? income ??rn?r ju?t ?b?v? th? minimum w?g? i? likely t? b? r?l?tiv?l? poorer. But they will n?t b?n?fit fr?m the minimum w?g?.Incentive for automation: An in?r???? t? th? minimum w?g? would provide ?n incentive for ?m?l???r? to inv??t in ?ut?m?t?d ?r???????, technology, and machinery t? increase productivity r?th?r than hum?n resources.The competition f?r minimum wage j?b? will int?n?if?: A? a result, t??n?g?r? and younger w?rk?r? will l??? ?ut t? more experienced ??ndid?t??, thereby r?bbing th?m ?f ????rtuniti?? t? gain ?x??ri?n?? ?nd ?nt?r th? workforce.MINIMUM W?G? F?R ??M? ST?T?SEv?n though th? federal minimum wage hasnt in?r????d ?in?? 2009, th? majority of states h?v? a higher minimum wage than required b? th? federal g?v?rnm?nt.In addition, some l???l muni?i??liti?? h?v? initi?t?d minimum w?g? increases f?r th?ir location.For instance, San Fr?n?i???? minimum w?g? is high?r th?n th? state ?f C?lif?rni?? minimum wage. And, C?lif?rni?? minimum wage i? high?r th?n th? f?d?r?l minimum wage.In 2017, th? minimum w?g? increased in 21 ?t?t?? ?nd the Di?tri?t ?f Columbia. In 2018, the high??t ?t?t? minimum wage w?? $11.50/hour, in Washington ?t?t?, followed by M?????hu??tt? ?nd C?lif?rni? ?t $11/h?ur.M?n? ?iti?? also increased th? minimum w?g? rate ?? well â€" ?? ?f J?n. 1, 2018, it? $14/hour in S??ttl?, W??hingt?n (or $11.50/hour, plus at least $2.50/h?ur in tips and b?n?fit?) ?nd $15/h?ur in Sunnyvale, C?lif?rni?, f?r instance.C?N?LU?I?NStudi?? fr?m b?th ?id?? of th? debate m?k? it relatively clear that in?r???ing minimum w?g? will n?t m?k? a ?ignifi??nt im???t on th? ??v?rt? level.A???rding t? th? C?ngr???i?n?l Budg?t Office r???rt ?n Th? Eff??t? of a Minimum-W?g? In?r???? on Em?l??m?nt ?nd Family Income, in?r???ing th? minimum w?g? fr?m $7.25 t? $10.10 ??r hour will ?nl? r?du?? the number of ????l? in ??v?rt? by 900,000, a r?l?tiv?l? f?w ??rti?n ?f th? 16.5 million people th?t would supposedly b?n?fit from th? r?i??.This i? because ?f th? numb?r of minimum wage workers, r?l?tiv?l? f?w ?r? ??tu?ll? in poverty, ?nd of f?mili?? wh? liv? in poverty, ?nl? about 7 ??r??nt h?v? a full-tim? w?rk?r in th? f?mil? meaning poverty i? n?t because ????l? are n?t b?ing ??id ?n?ugh, it i? because they ?r? n?t working or not w?rking enough.S?m? ?ugg??t th?t ?r??ting m?r? j?b? f?r ????l? wh? n??d th?m rather than raising earnings f?r people wh? ?lr??d? have th?m is a b?tt?r ??luti?n f?r r?du?ing th? n?ti?n?l ??v?rt? r?t?.Of ??ur??, thi? does n?t mean th?t r?i?ing th? minimum w?g? wouldn’t b? gr??tl? b?n?fi?i?l t? th??? earning it, but ultimately it d??? n?t h?l? those wh? do n?t ?lr? ?d? h?v? jobs t? begin with.Wh?t d? ??u think?

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Cigarettes Advertisements A Look At Couples Essay

Cigarettes Advertisements: A look at couples’ portrayal in the past and present Consumers are struck by several different and diverse advertisements trying to incentivize cigarette smoking. Big tobacco corporations have often used masculinity in the characters of their ads whom have made it ‘cool’ to smoke. The advertising of cigarettes goes back to when companies used creative solutions to sell cigarettes, when a scare arose to make cigarettes seem bad for you because it caused cancer. Cigarette companies quelled these consumers fears, particularly the tobacco company that owns Lucky Strike. Lucky Strike used the slogan â€Å"it’s toasted,† so that consumers can see its cigarette brand in a new light such as being a healthier and higher quality choice when in reality it’s just the same product as before, but it eases the consumer to buying their product. By offering the illusion that Lucky Strike is the safer choice, the advertising company then tries to find a target audience for selling cigarettes which, of whom in the adver tisements I’m analyzing, the target audience are mostly male smokers through the depiction of male dominance. The parallel connection between the Lucky Strike and the Newport cigarettes advertisements is that the advertisers try to sell based on men’s desire to smoke and portray women as something of a pastime activity where they are only meant to serve their man. It’s through the use of advertisements such as Lucky Strike and Newport Cigarettes, we learnShow MoreRelatedUsing Deconstructive Criticism to Analyze an Advertisement for Newport Cigarettes954 Words   |  4 Pageshundred advertisements in a single day. As unrealistic as the statistic seems, it is because most people are not often aware of the companies attempt to expose their products through an advertisement to the consumers unless it is one that is personally appealing to themselves. An advertisement is used to grab the attention of the audience by means of television, radio, internet, billboards, magazines, and newspapers. Through the use of media, the advertisers usually create the advertisement to persuadeRead MoreCigarette Ad Essay1299 Words   |  6 Pagespossible. It is interesting though, that we, as a society, actually are still deceived into believing the false promises of happiness and bliss from smoking cigarettes. In our society people still deny and forget the fact that smoking causes lung cancer and directly kills over a million people every year, and that is just what tobacco advertisement departments would like to have you forget. Nowadays, advertising has become a major part of American society today. Everywhere you go there is advertisingRead More Cigarette Ad Essay1274 Words   |  6 Pagespossible. It is interesting though, that we, as a society, actually are still deceived into believing the false promises of happiness and bliss from smoking cigarettes. In our society people still deny and forget the fact that smoking causes lung cancer and directl y kills over a million people every year, and that is just what tobacco advertisement departments would like to have you forget. Nowadays, advertising has become a major part of American society today. Everywhere you go there is advertisingRead MoreRipalet Cigarette Essay804 Words   |  4 PagesTipalet Cigarette: Sexist or Not? Everyone has their own excuse for why they start smoking and why they don’t want to quit. Many of the excuses can be treated without smoking. The goal of the Tipalet cigarette pack ad is to encourage men to experience smoking, however, The ad also sends another message that impacts both sexes differently. To men, they’re selling women and coolness. For women, they’re selling a stereotype, that shes submissive and used as a sex object. However, not all womenRead MoreComparing The Procuress By Johannes Vermeer Essay1394 Words   |  6 PagesJohannes Vermeer was an early visual created in 1656. In this visual, you see three men and a woman having drinks. One of the men has his hand on the woman breast. Another man has a very sly look on his face, and the last man has a deceitful smile on his face with a beverage in his hand. The women on the other hand looks calm and collect with a beverage in her hand, but her eyes are close. This made me assume that they are drinking alcohol and are trying to seduce the woman. To add on to that, procuressRead MoreChanges in Cigarette Advertistments Since the 20th Century Essay623 Words   |  3 Pagesof advertising and the most common advertising techniques focus on appealing to their targeted audience through appropriate persuasive language and visual elements. This paper will explore the evolution of cigarette advertisements from America by the use of language and images in advertisements, and find out how it links to consumer behavior and significant events throughout the 20th century. As a large section of public opinion is shaped through media and mass communication, the paper will investigatingRead MoreThe Dangers Of Secondhand Smoke1214 Words   |  5 Pagesbest to raise awareness through advertisements. Although there are many different approaches you can take to access the topic of secondhand smoke many companies have started using young children and young adults to draw in viewers, hoping t o leave an emotional impact on their life. The advertisement shown in figure 1 is a great example of using a young child in the advertisement to add that emotional touch. SmokeFr8ee, the company that produced this advertisement, is trying to raise awareness andRead MoreSmoking Cigarettes Should Be Legal1219 Words   |  5 PagesMost doctors smoke back then, right? So, you should smoke cigarettes too. If doctors do it, so could you. But is that the case in today’s society? This specific advertisement is addressing to the audience that smoking is okay because doctors are promoting that it is good for you, and it will even enhance your life; however, this is not true. Back then, people thought that smoking a cigarette was not harmful. But in actuality, over the years, it has been found that smoking is harmful to one’s selfRead MoreYou Cannot Trust Fast Food Companies679 Words   |  3 PagesWe have all seen those advertisements that show glorious looking hamburgers that look like are simply exploding with tasty g oodness, but how many times has our food actually looked like the advertisement? In my experience, that number would be zero. These advertisements are meant to trick our minds into thinking fast food is much better than it is in reality. Although, this argument could be made about just about any company in this age of brand personification, but just because other companiesRead MoreEffects Of Advertising Essay1249 Words   |  5 Pageswhere we contribute to the prominence of advertising; however, the effects upon us are unknown. Advertising can be seen in the majority of the world, it has gotten to the point in which people become almost completely oblivious to them. People see advertisement in stores, in billboards, television, and even their homes. It has come to the point where people believe they are not affected by these ads but that is not the case. Advertising has various effects on the world such as educating society, persuading

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Egt1 Task 3 - 751 Words

EGT-1 Task 3 Revised A. Summarize the four major pieces of legislation collectively known as the Antitrust laws. United States antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws, which regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers. The four major pieces of legislation known as the Antitrust Laws include: The Sherman Act, The Clayton Antitrust Act, The Federal Trade Commission, and the Celler-Kefauver Act. The Sherman Act was created in 1890 had two major provisions which was to prohibit conspiracies to restrain trade and also to outlaw monopolization. In 1914 the Clayton Act was passed to expand off of the Sherman Act. The Clayton†¦show more content†¦Since monopolies have no competition they have complete control over pricing and production. (McConnell 195) C. Explain the major functions of the three primary federal and state regulatory commissions that govern industrial regulation. 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The FCC is directed by five commissioners who are appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U.S Senate.(3) The State Public Utility Commissions is represented by NARUC which is responsible for utility services (electricity, gas telephones) in different states.(4) The reasoning behind the three is to control pricing so the public can benefit from the economies of scale that occur with monopolies and do so in a way that provides a fair return for those producers. Specifically, this intent is covered in the public interest theory of regulation which protects consumers from unfairShow MoreRelatedEGT1 Task 31850 Words   |  8 Pagesï » ¿WGU EGT1 Task 3 Student# In this essay I will discuss a few terms and how their relationships apply between regulation and market structures, as well as how regulation policies affect the market. 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These factors in addition to other advantages have substantially increased the number of United States businesses lookingRead MoreGreen Human Resource Practices : Barriers to implement Green HR Practices6100 Words   |  25 PagesLecturer GIFT University Gujranwala (Research Paper) Acknowledgement We start this research project with the Holy name of ALLAH ALMIGHTY, who bestowed us the ability potential to accomplish this task also gave us the command on this subject, which is impossible without ALLAH’s blessings. Than we thank our parents who always gave us support our respectable teachers specially our most respectable worthy teachers Mr. ABID AWAN and Mr. HASSAN

Religion in History Free Essays

Hebrew religious beliefs differed from the beliefs of other people in the ancient Middle East. â€Å"Of all the ancient civilizations, it was the Hebrews who exerted perhaps the greatest influence on western society as well as the western intellectual tradition† (â€Å"Hebrew’). The Hebrews first appeared in Mesopotamia and then migrated from Mesopotamia to Canaan and then into Egypt and back to Canaan. We will write a custom essay sample on Religion in History or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Hebrew people were different. For them, there was only one god, Yahweh. This was a fundamental difference between the Hebrews and their neighbors in the ancient Middle East. The Egyptians, Babylonians, and others did not worship Yahweh. Not Reason but Revelation was the cornerstone of the Hebrew faith† (â€Å"Religion†). Yahweh was the focus of Hebrew life; therefore, the Hebrews would give no praise to royalty. Moses received the Ten Commandments as guidelines for the Hebrews. The poor, children, and sick were all protected and rich and poor were to be treated under the same laws. Personal property was not most important and did not define a person for the first time. Hebrews’ felt that Yahweh was fair; however their neighbors felt different about their Gods. â€Å"The ancient lands of Canaan, Israel, and Judah were overrun at various times. The peoples who ruled them brought with hem their own gods and religious practices. Wherever they went, the Hebrews kept their customs and their belief† (â€Å"Hebrew†). The Persians were settled in the area long before the Hebrews. â€Å"The Persians had two gods, Ahura Mazda, who created all the good things in the world, and Ahriman, who created all the bad things in the world. These two gods were at war all the time. Their struggle kept the world in a delicate balance. If one god gained the upper hand, then more of his influence would be felt† (â€Å"Middle†). The Phoenicians also believed in gods that were responsible for parts of nature, such as rain and wind. Baal, the storm god, was the second most important Phoenician god, behind El, the chief god† (â€Å"Middle†). The Phoenicians also believed in a life after death, as did their neighbors the Egyptians. Both embalmed their dead and wrapped them in linen; the Phoenicians placed the bodies in stone coffins in hillside cemeteries It was believed that people could decide which god they wanted to follow. â€Å"Those who followed Ahura Mazda, the god of good, did good deeds like keeping their word, giving to the poor, treating other people well, and obeying the king. Those who followed Ahriman did bad things, like lying, cheating, being lazy, and being reedy’ (â€Å"Middle†). In the end, Ahura Mazda would triumph and good would win. People who supported this god would enjoy happiness after death. Those who supported Ahriman would be punished for that support. â€Å"This religion, later called Zoroastrianism, was the religion practiced throughout the Persian Empire when Alexander the Great conquered it in 330† (â€Å"Middle†). With his influence, Alexander brought the religion of the Greeks. Sumerians and Hebrews had many similarities and differences in their beliefs. They both give high regard to the Gods. Gods have the most power and can bring ood fortune, good harvest, good health, and good life. On the other hand, the Gods can take all these goods back and cause death, sickness, and plague. Sumerians and religious beliefs of the Hebrews from the belief systems of Egypt or Mesopotamia was clearly their monotheism. This monotheism made possible for a new awareness of the individual. Man had the capacity to choose between good and evil. Sumerians practice polytheism; in fact, they think of the Gods as human. Eastern polytheism used images to represent their gods and goddesses. The Sumerians believed that the forces of nature were alive. The people couldn’t control these forces of nature, so they worshipped them as gods. The people also believed that they were living on Earth only to please the gods. â€Å"The Sumerian gods included Anu, the ruler of the gods; Enki, the god of earth; and Enlil, the god of the air, who separated heaven and earth. Enlil it was also who gave the Sumerians their knowledge of farming† (Hebrew’). Each Sumerian city also had its own god. The focus of the city was the ziggurat, a large temple, which was the home of that city’s god. The priests who worked in the ziggurats were the only ones who knew the will of the gods, so hey were very powerful. How to cite Religion in History, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Macbeth Essay Essays - Characters In Macbeth, English-language Films

Macbeth Essay I am going to prove that in the play Macbeth, a symbol of blood is portrayed often(and with different meanings), and that it is a symbol that is developed until it is the dominating theme of the play towards the end of it. To begin with, I found the word "blood", or different forms of it forty-two times (ironically, the word fear is used forty-two times), with several other passages dealing with the symbol. Perhaps the best way to show how the symbol of blood changes throughout the play, is to follow the character changes in Macbeth. First he is a brave honoured soldier, but as the play progresses, he becomes a treacherous person who has become identified with death and bloodshed and shows his guilt in different forms. The first reference of blood is one of honour, and occurs when Duncan sees the injured sergeant and says "What bloody man is that?". This is symbolic of the brave fighter who been injured in a valiant battle for his country. In the next passage, in which the sergeant says "Which smok'd with bloody execution", he is referring to Macbeth's braveness in which his sword is covered in the hot blood of the enemy. After these few references to honour, the symbol of blood now changes to show a theme of treachery and treason. Lady Macbeth starts this off when she asks the spirits to "make thick my blood,". What she is saying by this, is that she wants to make herself insensitive and remorseless for the deeds which she is about to commit. Lady Macbeth knows that the evidence of blood is a treacherous symbol, and knows it will deflect the guilt from her and Macbeth to the servants when she says "smear the sleepy grooms with blood.", and "If he do bleed, I'll gild the faces of the grooms withal, for it must seem their guilt." When Banquo states "and question this most bloody piece of work," and Ross says "is't known who did this more than bloody deed?", they are both inquiring as to who performed the treacherous acts upon Duncan. When Macbeth is speaking about Malcolm and Donalbain, he refers to them as "bloody cousins" A final way, and perhaps the most vivid use of the symbol blood, is of the theme of guilt. First Macbeth hints at his guilt when he says "Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood clean from my hand?", meaning that he wondered if he would ever be able to forget the dastardly deed that he had committed. Then the ghost of Banquo, all gory, and bloody comes to haunt Macbeth at the banquet. The sight of apparitions represents his guilt for the murder of Banquo which he planned. Macbeth shows a bit of his guilt when he says "It is the bloody business which informs thus," he could not get the courage to say murder after he had killed Duncan, so he says this instead. Lady Macbeth shows the most vivid example of guilt using the symbol of blood in the scene in which she walks in her sleep. She says "Out damned spot! Out I say! One: two: why then 'tis time to do't: hell is murky. Fie, my lord, fie, a soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it when none can call out power to account? Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him?". This speech represents the fact that she cannot wipe the blood stains of Duncan off of her hands. It is ironic, that she says this, because right after the murder, when Macbeth was feeling guilty, she said "A little water clears us of this deed." When the doctor of the castle finds out about this sleepwalking, he tells Macbeth "As she is troubled with thick-coming fantasies,". What this means, is that Lady Macbeth is having fantasies or dreams that deal with blood. Macbeth knows in his mind that she is having troubles with her guilt, but does not say anything about it. Just before the ending of the play, Macbeth has Macduff at his mercy, and lets him go, because of his guilt. He shows that he is guilty, when he says "But get thee back, my soul is too much charg'd with blood of thine already.". Of which, Macduff replies, "I have no words, my voice is in my sword, thou bloodier villain than terms can give thee out." After the death of Macbeth at the hands of Macduff,

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Together Yet Separate essays

Together Yet Separate essays You cant play with He-man, hes not for girls! This phrase still echoes in my mind as I reminisce about my childhood playtime. As I reached for a He-man action figure from the toy box, I was handed a Barbie doll or a My Little Pony figurine. At that time, I was too young to realize the great chasm that gender had created for such a simple task as playing with toys. However, looking back, it becomes clear that gender, itself, plays a key role in the everyday lives of boys and girls. In Barrie Thornes book, Gender Play, this role is depicted in various ways through participant observation, or ethnography. By researching the ways that children play an active role in doing gender, analyzing the neutralization of this socialized role, and displaying the effects that education, primarily those with a classroom setting, has on gender, Thorne provides ample support of the notion that gender is a social construction. From my experiences with the He-man doll, one can deduce a certain boundary line for activities between girls and boys. Barrie Thorne provides explanations of these boundaries by analyzing the ways that children play an active role in creating them. By having shared interests, or behavioral compatibility, girls and boys contribute to the act of gender. Although there is not overwhelming support, boys find it more rewarding to interact and play with boys, and girls to interact and play with girls...girls more often gravitate to housekeeping corners and doll-play, and boys to the area with large blocks and toy cars...(Thorne 57). This example explains the division between boys and girls as one of shared interests. Because girls enjoy the same activities as other girls, and boys enjoy the same activities as other boys, a boundary for gender is marked. In choosing to play with a He-man doll, I crossed this boundary. However, in defining why chi...

Monday, March 2, 2020

How to Apply for a Research Grant

How to Apply for a Research Grant How to Apply for a Research Grant There are several things you need to do when preparing a research grant application. These include the following: Plan the application process from the very beginning. This means setting aside time to research funding sources, as well   as working out the basic details of your project (e.g., proposed budget and timeframe). Read your funding organization’s submission guidelines and use these to write up your application. Try to use clear, concise language throughout. Justify each aspect of your application, including your methods, costs, timescale, what your research will achieve, and why you have applied for a grant to fund your work. Proofread your application carefully before submitting it. And to help you through this process, we’ll now look at each of these points in more detail. Read on to find out more. 1. Researching a Research Grant To maximize your chances of success when planning a grant application, you need to find a funder that suits your situation and research interests. To do this, you should: Set a schedule for the application process that you can work towards. Work out your basic proposal, such as the budget and research aims. Look for funding opportunities in your subject area. Make sure to check eligibility guidelines and the funding organization’s objectives. Speak to colleagues about your grant proposal, especially if you know anyone who has received funding for a similar project in the past. The idea is to find the best funder for your project. Once you have done this, try to get as much relevant information as possible together before you begin writing up your application. 2. Writing Up Your Application Before you write up your application, read the funding organization’s submission guidelines carefully. These will set out how your application should be written, formatted, and structured. The format here may vary slightly, but most research grant applications should include: A title page featuring your name(s) and contact information. An abstract or summary of the proposal. An introduction with background information and research aims. A short literature review of the research you are building upon. Proposed methods and expected results of your research. A budget outline for how the grant will be spent. A timeframe for conducting the research. In terms of style, a research grant application should be clear, concise, and formal. If possible, though, try to keep the language simple and avoid jargon unless it is strictly necessary. 3. Justifying Your Choices While writing up your application, make sure to explain your thinking. This is vital because you may be competing for the same grant as many other academics. As such, you need to show that you have considered each aspect of your proposal in detail, including: How your research fits with the funding organization’s interests. Why you need a grant for your research and how it will be spent. Why the methods and timescale you have proposed are appropriate. How the research will contribute to knowledge in your subject area and/or how it could be applicable in â€Å"real life† situations outside academia. 4. Editing and Proofreading Finally, always leave time for editing and proofreading before you submit your application. This will allow you to seek feedback from colleagues and make revisions accordingly. In addition, once you have made any final revisions, you may want to ask someone to give your application one final check (perhaps even a professional proofreader). This will ensure the final document is 100% typo free, demonstrating valuable attention to detail in the process.