Monday, September 30, 2019

Tragedy in Waco Texas

Many people in this world tend to belong to a religious group. People feel that religion is a way to fill an emptiness they may be feeling inside. It is a way to comfort those who may have lost loved ones knowing that they are now in a â€Å"better place† and we too will join them there once it is our time. However, some people belong to either a religious sect or cult. These groups are not considered meet the standards of what it means to be a religion or they simply do not have enough people following them. In the early 90s, many people had a narrow-minded vision of what exactly the Branch Davidians were in Waco Texas.Stuart A. Wright presented an unbiased opinion in his book Armageddon in Waco so everyone could question what really happened and whether or not the government was justified in their actions. There are several differences between a religion, a sect, and a cult. According to our notes worldly religions meet a certain criteria to be known mainstream. Each religio n has a long history of existence and ancient texts. The religion has many people who follow it and elites that adhere and accept it (i. e. Emperor Constantine).The religion is normalized an influential; no one questions the faith. Finally, there is a cultural/social integration of the religion; for example, when someone new is being initiated into the presidency they must swear on the Bible. Some major religions are Christianity containing 2. 1 billion followers, Islam containing 1. 5 billion followers, and Judaism containing 14 million followers (class slide show dated 11/18). A religious sect has similar qualities of a religion, but they feel they have made improvements to older established religious.According to our notes, sects are a branch of previously existing religions; the group uses old ancient texts (like the Bible or the Qur’an) and mix new interpretations of that text. An example of this would be the book of Mormon. These sects are not fully accepted in mainstre am society and are considered to be â€Å"weird† by major religions. The sect usually contained a small number of followers who have a disdain for mainstream religions. Elites are not usually members of religious sects, but rather choose to attack them claiming they are blasphemers. Finally, many sects started to reform a much larger church.Some examples of religious sects would be the Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Scientologists (class slide show dated 11/18). Although, I would argue that Scientology has more cult like qualities than sect like qualities; it is only labeled a sect because its members are people like Tom Cruise and John Travolta. A group that is considered a cult usually does not have many members all of which are not dependent on orthodox religious beliefs. According to our notes, cults usually have many different ideas, a lot of which are about the end of the world.These groups are often hostile, but at the same time provide members with everythin g the group needs. Outsiders often view these groups as threats; this is why they are labeled a cult. Cults have deviant beliefs about sex, drug use, and other acceptable behavior (class slide show dated 11/18). Myths are also associated with cults and the media plays on these myths to present these cults as a threat to society. According to our notes from the slideshow, some cult myths are that members are brainwashed, they are sexual deviants, there is abuse among members, and there are strange acts like sacrificing animals etc.An example of a cult would be Jim Jones and the People’s Temple mass suicide. Jim Jones managed to create one of the largest mass suicides in history convincing 900 people to kill themselves by drinking poisonous Kool-Aid. In my opinion, the Branch Davidians in Waco Texas could be classified as a sect with cult-like characteristics. According to the documentary, â€Å"The Final Report: Waco Tragedy,† the Branch Davidian group is a branch of th e Seven Day Adventist Church. Their leader, David Koresh, taught his follows of many end time prophecies.Koresh was following the teachings of the founding Davidian named Victor Tasho Houteff. According to Stuart A. Wright, who edited the book Armageddon in Waco, â€Å"Houteff interpreted the Bible in terms of prophecy fulfillment†¦he reconstructed a history on the basis of mysterious and arcane passages recorded in Daniel, and interpreted signs in current events which suggested fulfillment of end times† (pg. 23). Many myths circling cults are about end times and the end of the world itself. Since that is the basis of the Branch Davidian group it is obvious why they were view as â€Å"different† or â€Å"crazy† when thinking the world will end.During the early 1990’s, the Davidians were a very closed off group living in their compound called Mt. Carmel; this played right into cult like myths presented by the media. It brought about questions like â⠂¬Å"What are they doing it there? † or â€Å"Why is everything secretive? It must be illegal. † It didn’t help that the Davidians had their own money system and educational system in order to design the culture for future generations (Wright pg. 27). According to the documentary â€Å"Waco: Rules of Engagement,† David Koresh had several children with various different â€Å"wives. All of said â€Å"wives† were in actuality the legal wives of his followers. This played right into another cult myth; the myth that the Branch Davidians had deviant beliefs toward sex. Although the Davidians have many cult-like myths circling them, the fact remains they are just myths not proof. The group did not meet any other of the criteria for being considered a cult. It was obvious that the government wanted to pose this little branch of the Seven Day Adventist Church as a threat because they did not meet social norms.Cults are said to be their own group entirely wi th new thoughts, beliefs, and ideas. The Branch Davidians share the beliefs of the Seven Day Adventists since that is the religion they stem from. This makes the groups more of a sect with some cult-like characteristics. David Koresh was also look upon as a threat because he was housing illegal firearms. According to the documentary â€Å"Waco: The Rules of Engagement,† Koresh was presented to the people as an insane cult leader who was in possession of illegal weapons.The media, BTAF, and FBI construed people into believing Koresh would use these weapons on people thus making Koresh a threat to the public. The ATF warrants against Koresh accused him of holding these illegal weapons as well as sexually abusing children (which still cannot be proven). To make the Waco group more of a threat to the public the media, former Davidians, and the government all make certain claims about the group and play into people’s fears. â€Å"Claims-making is more effective if the part icular issues target problems that reflect pre-existing or widespread social fears and apprehensions† (Wright 79).Claims making allows a small window for what they consider to be outside of the social norm; in other words you can be â€Å"weird,† but not â€Å"too weird. † The media presented David Koresh with the nickname â€Å"The Sinful Messiah. † The name itself sends out an alert in people’s minds; anyone who hears this derogatory name is now well aware this man must be a â€Å"weirdo. † On March 3, 1993, Mark England and Darlene McCormick released an article in the Waco Tribune-Herald Series called â€Å"The Sinful Messiah,† calling David Koresh by his birth name (Vernon Howell) and spreading rumors about various things he was accused of in the Mt.Carmel compound. England and McCormick claim they have interviewed several former Davidian members who said Koresh was guilty of abusing children physically and psychologically, having sex with underage girls, and had at least 15 â€Å"wives. † England and McCormick also make claims that Koresh (or Howell as they refer to him) fathered many children from his various â€Å"wives† while living in the compound. It says in the article, â€Å"County records show no birth certificates for many children whom former cult members said have been born to Branch Davidian women since the late 1980's.A former cult member once registered as a midwife in McLennan County said she delivered twin girls in 1991 to a young Branch Davidian woman living at Mount Carmel. The midwife said Howell ordered her not to register the babies with local officials, a violation of state law. † The problem with these accusations however, is that they are all from â€Å"anonymous† sources. It is almost like reading a tabloid magazine. If a tabloid is trying to make it seem like two people in Hollywood are dating they will write in the article quotes from these â€Å"anonym ous† sources that are proven false majority of the time.When I read this article I had the same feeling as if I were reading a bogus article in Star Magazine. I also feel the way England and McCormick refused to call him David Koresh seemed derogatory. The fact that the writers purposely called him Vernon Howell gave the article an air of sarcasm. It was as if they were saying, â€Å"Look at this crazy guy who thinks he’s the messiah; his name is Vernon Howell. † However, the article fails to mention Vernon Howell did in fact change his name legally to David Koresh. I do not think by any means that David Koresh was the messiah, but I think it was wrong to mock the fact that he changed his name.The media wanted to present him as some crazy man from Texas; the writers were clearly mocking him and wanted to let the public know it was allowed and encouraged to look at David Koresh as if he were insane. The only real source in the article seemed to be from a girl by t he name of Kiri Jewell. Kiri’s father and mother were divorced and had joint custody of her. However, her father rarely saw her when Kiri and her mother went to live in the compound. However, the child abuse thing was blown completely out of proportion.After the massacre occurred and the hearings were going on in congress in 1995, Kiri Jewell testified against David Koresh claiming he sexually abused her. According to footage shown in the documentary â€Å"Waco: Rules of Engagement,† Kiri went on record saying that when she was just 10 years old she was sexually assaulted by Koresh. However, Kiri Jewell is not a reliable source as well. In the documentary, after Kiri makes her statement, the Davidians defense attorneys show that Jewell has made several contradictory statements in the past. The documentary then flashes to an interview with the Sherriff of Waco.He explains that they are yet to charge Koresh of any form of abuse, but if there was anything like that going on with girls that were at least fourteen and had parental consent then it is not illegal. It may be morally wrong to outsiders looking in, but to them it was perfectly natural and acceptable (not saying I agree with that, but I’m not a Branch Davidian). However, I do think the media took one girl’s accusations and made a mountain out of a molehill. They knew people would respond poorly after hearing any form of abuse toward children, thus justifying the military actions towards the Waco group.In class we watched two documentaries; one was titled â€Å"The Final Report: Tragedy at Waco† the other titled â€Å"Waco: Rules of Engagement. † Both documentaries gave viewers extremely different feelings toward them same event in Waco, Texas. When watching â€Å"The Final Report: Tragedy at Waco,† the producers of the documentary purposely make the Branch Davidian group seem alien and obviously cannot be trusted since they were so closed off from everyone else. The documentary starts off by asking a series of questions like â€Å"Who are the Branch Davidians? and â€Å"Who is David Koresh? † There is music playing in the background almost comparable to that someone would hear in a horror movie. It is clear from the start the purpose of this documentary is to make the Branch Davidians seem like a menacing crazy cult from the Boondocks of Texas. This documentary also only seemed to present one side of the story. The made it seem like it was the most obvious thing in the world that the Davidians wanted to kill themselves in a mass suicide and therefore, when under attack by the FBI, started a fire.This documentary was shorter and did not present a fair amount of details from both sides of the story. This documentary even has the world â€Å"tragedy† in the title; right away people will play into the idea that the fire was just another mass suicide by some insane religious â€Å"cult† in the middle of no where Texa s. It played right into what the media stereotyped the group to look like. The second documentary we watched was titled â€Å"Waco: Rules of Engagement. † In my opinion this documentary was much more fair and presented both sides as best as it could.This documentary was done with a more unbiased eye, unlike the first one. However, this documentary did do a successful job of making the FBI look like screw-ups and this whole thing was just a big government cover-up. Maybe it just showed the incident at Mount Carmel for exactly what it was. Technically in the documentary the FBI did a good job of making themselves look like screw-ups because the documentary simply showed footage of thing various agents said. On some level this documentary did manipulate viewers; for example when they showed the dead bodies that were burned it gave the Davidians a sympathy vote.However, this documentary did not alter anything, but rather presented it as it was. I felt it allowed the people to get a clearer look at what happen and maybe see the media altered people’s perception of what really happened. It is difficult to say who started the fire. In my opinion this whole raid was a complete screw up. In the book Armageddon in Waco it says, â€Å"The BATF raid was a monumental failure. Subsequently, the April 19, 1993, FBI CS gas assault on the compound and the ensuing fire (whatever its cause) fulfilled only one stated objective—that of suppressing an armed group.The children who were to be saved from abuse died instead† (Wright pg. 229). There is no accurate cause of what started the fire. However, according to the documentary â€Å"Waco: Rules of Engagement† I have reason to believe it was started by accident from the FBI tanks. After the FBI released the gas that was supposed to be harmless and â€Å"nonflammable† into the compound it was shown by the person who invented infrared cameras and readings that several shots were fired from FB I tanks even though they went on record saying no shots were fired that day.During the trials they tried to present it like those flashes were light being reflected, however, these cameras only pick up heat so it would be virtually impossible to pick up a reflection; needless to say Congress and everyone in the courtroom were obviously stunned. In my own personal opinion I feel the shots from the FBI tanks mixed with the gas released into the compound were the cause of the fire. After seeing interviews with various Branch Davidian members who died on that day it was obvious they had no intention of this mass suicide.It doesn’t even coincide with their beliefs; they believed that there would be a final battle, which they would come out victorious. Although on some levels this was a battle I do not believe they would have given up and killed themselves. If there who belief system was based on this battle wouldn’t they fight back? When the fire started it looked like seve ral explosions were going off. That could only have occurred when the shots mixed with the gas that was spread throughout the building. The FBI did not want to admit they messed up big time so they formed an alliance with the media presenting a completely different story.If someone were to see a headline about the Branch Davidians they would see words like â€Å"cult† and â€Å"mass suicide. † The media presented the story as if the group started the fire themselves. Media groups claimed to have phone conversations indicating they had planned these actions; however, the phone conversations so no indication that the Branch Davidians had any intention of starting a fire to kill all its members. Most people even tried to escape the compound when it was in flames. If a mass suicide were really the planned course of action why would people be trying to escape?Although the media presents that the fire was entirely the Branch Davidians’ fault, other evidence can prove otherwise. We discussed in class that this incident at Waco was indirectly to the Oklahoma City bombing. Timothy McVeigh felt it would send a clear message to attack the groups involved in the trials of the Branch Davidians because of their greatest mistake and cover-up. McVeigh was so angered by this government cover up that he felt he should bomb the federal buildings where people like FBI and ATF agents worked.He realized after it was wrong to kill innocent people and said he should have only gone after those involved in the incident at Waco. Although very different, religions, sects, cults have lots in common. They each have a group of lost souls who are looking beyond this life in hopes of a better afterlife. The Davidian’s beliefs may have been questionable, but it is what they believed. This is America where in our first amendment we have freedom of religion. The Davidians were nice people and did not deserve they fate they were delt.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Filipino People and Rizal Essay

Introduction: During Rizal’s time, he showed us what a real character of a woman is on those times. He told in one of his letter that from his infancy woman are with agreeable manners, beautiful ways, and modest demeanor. But he also told us that there was in all an admixture of servitude and deference to the words or whims of their so-called â€Å"spiritual fathers†, due to excessive kindness, modesty, or perhaps ignorance. They seemed faded plants sown and reared in darkness. The woman of Rizal’s time responded to the first appeal in the interest of the welfare of the people. Rizal said: now that you have set an example to those who, like you, long to have their eyes opened and be delivered from servitude, new hopes are awakened in us and we now even dare to face adversity, because we have you for our allies and are confident of victory. This term paper will discuss what are the identity of Filipina from the past and the women identity today. The significance of woman from the past who followed Rizal’s bravery to fight for their right and their characters, will also try to see what kind of woman identity should a Filipino have, the Filipino women in Rizal’s novel or some of our woman leaders of todays. What is a Filipina? Is she Asian or Western? Is she the reluctant leader Corazon Aquino, or is she the self-proclaimed â€Å"symbol of beauty for her people† Imelda Marcos? Is she the modern-day Gabriela Silang who envisions and works towards cross-sectoral changes, or is she one of the millions of faceless and nameless struggling multitude who does anything just to put rice on the table, the ordinary Juana de la Cruz? The implication of an early paradigm of gender character and equality may have, to some extent, begun the process of identity formation. On the surface, the Philippine myth does not seem to introduce the notion of conflict. What is projected is compatibility and harmony. Just when and how, then, did the problems of identity conflict for the Philippine woman come about? The language of the colonizer is found to not only serve as a vehicle for literary expression, but also for setting forth the idealized image of a Filipina from a male perspective. A brief glance at literature shows an evolution of sorts of the Filipina from the pre-colonial Maganda of indigenous folklore, to the early 1800s Laura who epitomizes beauty and faithful acceptance of her role as prescribed by culture, religion, and society; and to the fictional characterization of womanhood drawn from two works of historical fiction by Jose Rizal, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Although Rizal’s central protagonists in both novels are men, the significance of the women characters lies in their symbolic portrayals of a people of many images, of a country torn apart by race, culture, and class. In Rizal’s attempt to define a nation’s identity by addressing the need for national reforms and by exposing the evils of colonialism, he may have also encouraged the need to demystify the Filipina. The colonial Spanish period’s desired image of a Filipina is embodied in the character of Maria Clara–beautiful, demure, modest, patient, devoutly religious, cultured, submissive, and virginal. The blood that runs through her veins is more European than native. Her ancestry is noted since it has a bearing on the idealized model of a Filipina, the Roman Catholic’s Virgin Mary, and European and foreign. Maria Clara belongs to the elite; her kindness is not to be equated, however, with social awareness. She is a repressed woman and her weakness and despair over a lost love overwhelm her, enabling powerful and sinister forces to slowly drive her to death. Perhaps, to a certain degree, this â€Å"ideal† is still upheld today, contributing to the confusion of identity formation, for the original application of the character â€Å"Filipino† was only for Spaniards and their descendants who lived on the islands; the indigenous natives were simply called â€Å"indios. † The 19th century saw a character reversal process: the latter (â€Å"indios†) who have capitulated, are now called â€Å"Filipinos† while the former, mostly direct descendants of colonizers, now prefer to call them â€Å"Spanish. † The character Dona Victorina is a reflection of the triumph of colonialism–the alteration of behavior and thinking patterned after the character’s perception of a superior race. One hundred years ago, there was a Dona Victorina. Today, the trappings of a colonial mindset persist, and are expressed in the attraction to look Western and to consume Western goods. Dona Victorina is a characterization of lost identity. Her frivolity, and that of Paulita Gomez, who is greatly enamored by the trappings of the elite, who loves the man who could maintain the needs of her class, and who is a vain and flighty version of Maria Clara, may be seen today in the persona of Imelda Marcos. The likes of Imelda Marcos also mirror, ironically, another Rizal character, Dona Consolacion, who can be described as an interesting specimen of colonial deformation. She may serve as an example of â€Å"the dehumanization of the indio,† a case of total alienation from her original self, or from her potential self. The character Sisa also represents the opposite image of Paulita, a contradiction of the so-called high status and the liberated label describing the Filipino women today. She is the woman Mary Hollensteiner speaks of in her article, â€Å"The Wife†: quietly suffering from subjugation, sacrificing to put food on the table, living only for her sons. Sisa represents the silent victims of an oppression which drove her to madness and death. There are millions of Sisas in the Philippines today: the unfortunate women who are scavenging for food in the mountains of trash, the degraded women whose bodies are used as commodities, and the abused wives who are repeatedly beaten by their husbands. The other woman, Juli, emerges as the one character that chooses death over a life in shame. She suffers abuse and humiliation working as a servant to pay her family’s debt. She brings to mind the women of today who work for starvation wages. Juli refuses to be coerced; her death liberates her from oppression. Among these characters, perhaps Juli best characterizes a sense of purpose and identity. In Rizal’s characters, the women who seem to be able to obtain their desired needs no matter the consequences are Dona Victorina, Paulita Gomez, and Dona Consolacion. On the other hand, misfortune seems to be the fate of the women whose consciousness could be raised to levels higher than that of self-sacrifice. The all-giving attitude of Maria Clara, Sisa, and Juli leads them to their deaths. Within their social strata, each character is confronted with varying degrees of oppression which in turn defines the parameters of liberation. In their ambition to hold on to the symbols of the ruling class, the former group has made themselves seemingly strong and highly visible handmaidens of a system which feeds on varying levels of coercion and subjugation. The latter group’s retreat into death or madness carries two concurrent views: 1) the strength to exercise a final liberation as a form of defiance to oppression, and 2) the weakness and inability to confront any form of injustice. Who is more oppressed? Who has really liberated herself? Perhaps, what we are seeing is the notion that oppression has slowed down the process towards a national identity in general and towards a Filipina identity in particular. The reality is that the Philippines is a country still going through the throes of colonization. Indeed, there are those who have catapulted to the highest ranks, such as Corazon Aquino and Imelda Marcos, who embody differences in substance, style, and character. However, there are contradictions. Corazon Aquino’s high visibility, status, and power contradicts the image of a meek and subservient wife loyal to the memory of her husband; while Imelda Marcos, the â€Å"Iron Butterfly† of unparalleled extravagance, is a drastic contrast to the image of a once dutiful and subservient wife. Despite the fact that both overcame the traditional roles assigned to women of their social class by reaching positions of political power, they remain subservient to the memories of their husbands, but exemplify the interests of the class they represent. Class interest is perhaps the overriding difference between highly visible women, such as Corazon Aquino and Imelda Marcos, and the fervent activist women carrying the legacy of an intellectualized Gabriela Silang. While women in power and women working for empowerment both assert a heritage and demand a platform, the contradiction probably lies in the former’s subservience and the latter’s ability to address issues that cut across class lines. But class again diametrically separates political women from those who suffer in silence, such as the patient and self-sacrificing women who toil to feed their families, work in sweat shops, as vendors, scavengers, and prostitutes. There are also those who come faceless and nameless for they may flit and slide and go seemingly where the wind blows, all these, indeed a kaleidoscope of conflicting Filipina identities. Not only do Rizal’s novels provide a matrix for identity and conflict, they also allow a rare view of a people’s past which formed their culture today, and of a social cancer of which, up to the present, â€Å"the best cure† is still to be found. In the process of identity formation or perpetuation of identity conflict, the women in Rizal’s novels best serve as bridges in the development process, allowing the flow from the early 1800s mythical formation to the current emerging identity. The social, cultural and political context of both past and present are mirrored in the novels. The myth of the â€Å"high status† of the Filipina has caused Philippine women, wittingly or unwittingly, to become at times participants in their own oppression. This â€Å"containment by elevation† has allowed the essence of womanhood to be subjected to and dictated by rules and regulations formulated by and for the satisfaction of a colonial society. Philippine women find themselves attempting to wade out of a quagmire of confusion over their identity. Remembrance of Rizal is fast disappearing when it ought to be cherished and honored by all Filipinos. It was he who, more effectively than anyone else among his compatriots, unified the disparate inhabitants of our archipelago into one nation. It was he who made them share a common rage against the foreign intruder and a common aspiration for the freedom of their land. Rizal awakened the national conscience from its lethargy not through the force of arms but with the armies of his pen. These were the â€Å"Noli† and â€Å"El Filibusterismo,† his â€Å"Letter to the Women of Malolos,† his youthful poems for the Motherland, his â€Å"Mi Ultimo Adios† that he secreted in a lamp in Fort Santiago hours before his death, and other irrefutable accusations against the Spaniards. His words were like mighty legions that won for our country the freedom we now enjoy. Summary As we all see, that woman of today are very different from the past. Filipino women today are brave and strong enough just like Rizal to fight for what they think is right. There also some women from the past who fight for their rights like education but as compare today woman are more confident to stand. There are woman activist who really do what a Filipino woman can do to make a stand for their fellow poor Filipino people especially those people who are uneducated, they take everything to achieve their goals. Nowadays, we are now equal with man in almost everything most especially in terms of education, all people in our country, man and woman, rich and poor are now equal in getting education. Because of it we are now challenge to face the adverse circumstances and continued to fight for changes, not just to limit our roles as housewives but also to continue fighting for what is right, and that’s what a real Filipino woman identity today. Just like Rizal, he focused on self-improvement, showing to Spain and the rest of the international community that, given the opportunity to achieve their full potential, Filipinos could stand alongside the best in the world and were eligible for self-rule. Then he set out to apply what he had learned as an ophthalmologist, providing a basic service that was badly needed by his impoverished compatriots. In his writings he emphasized the importance of education, seeing it as the path to national progress rather than armed revolt. We all know that prudence does not consist in blindly obeying any whim of the little tin God, but in obeying only that which is reasonable and just, because blind obedience is itself the cause and origin of those whims, and those guilty of it are really to be blamed. Rizal said that God gave each individual reason and a will of his or her own to distinguish the just and the unjust, all were born without shackles and free, and nobody has a right to subjugate the will and the spirit of another. I hope we can revive the reverent sentiments of gratitude to him for his efforts in releasing us from foreign bondage. Political rhetoric is not enough to keep his heroism alive. Let us remember that he forsook the enticements of his youthful and gifted life and embraced instead the ultimate sacrifice for the welfare of his country. That is the best homage we can pay the greatest hero of our race. Conclusion The issue of racial equality is today hardly disputed in intellectual circles. During Rizal’s time, however, the claim that â€Å"all races are essentially equal† was a highly debated topic among anthropologists, biologists, and philosophers. The readers of his novels, essays, and letters are familiar with his portrayal and denunciation of Spanish colonial rule. His insistence on the education of the native Indios, the representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, and more so the recognition of the civil rights of the Filipino are all based on the belief that there are neither â€Å"essentially† superior nor â€Å"essentially† inferior races. In this belief stems the conviction that his fellow Filipinos had the capacity for autonomy and enlightenment. The present Filipino youth must know that in order to make their presence felt, they must understand Rizal. To understand Rizal, they must have the spirit and motivation to do so. Without such spirit or motivation, they will never be able to understand Rizal’s objectives or even the other heroes who fought for equality and freedom for the sake of the Fatherland. I believe that the Filipino youth will be able to move the society through these implied teachings of Jose Rizal that will sprout a new love to the Filipino Hero, I admit that I only considered Rizal’s Life and Works as another general education subject that is needed to be taken. But what I get is more than just knowing Rizal, but also knowing my Filipino identity and that I must fight at all cost to defend my identity. A lot of what Rizal had dreamed of has now come true for many people in the state. He was already a modern democrat when he advocated participation in the state and society with education. Today, education is no longer a privilege among the small elite, for everybody’s participation in all public matters has become a right and duty. † One’s right to express him or her in all matters is founded on compulsory education with the required quality standards. References: Jose Rizal’s Writings in Europe and its message to the Filipino Youth Today Zaide, Gregorio F. & Zaide, Sonia M. 1998. Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Capino, Gonzales and Pineda: Rizal’s life, works and writings:their impact on our National identity Colonization: It’s Impact on Self-Image Philippine Women in Rizal’s Novels and Today By Linda Acupanda McGloin.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Summary Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Summary - Term Paper Example Bartlett, in the article, addresses the issue of the serious rift evident in ethical view of in theoretical terms and manner in which employees follow the theories in real management situations while applying ethics. Ethical theory has its base upon moral theory used to define it. According to Bartlett, decision makers tend to embrace business ethics based on motivational elements. This suggests that level to which ethic receives recognition depends on the motivational elements outlined in the expectancy theory. Several business ethics researchers show failure while formulating and defining their research agenda. In defining their agenda for research, misconception occurs when business ethics researchers do not adequately relate personal values to the course of moral reasoning. By that, business ethics researchers fail to recognize and integrate the role of cognitive process in moral reasoning, which is essential in ensuring business ethics at the workplace. The researchers, therefore, alienate the role of reasoning which is intermediary. Bartlett gives proposals that would help ensure a harmony between the theoretical and practical views of business ethics. These aims at addressing the theory-practice rift existing in the management of business ethics. Bartlett notes that, despite the study of business ethics in philosophies and psychology that promotes morality, business ethics application in real situations remains a challenging issues to many people. The approaches used in the learning of seem to fail in their application, in real life scenarios. Suggestions that bring out the possibility of achieving a narrowing down of the gap would see compatibility of the two concepts. Appreciation of the variability between real life situations in management and theory by researchers is fundamental. Recognition of the complexity is of immense importance. This would enable business ethics researchers come up with frameworks of

Concert Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Concert Report - Essay Example The band started off with hits like Heading off the Highway, Judas Rising and Starbreaker. But my personal favorites like Breaking the Law, Painkiller and Beyond the Realms of Death were performed towards the end, as they wanted to keep most of the crowd entertained. Breaking the Law is my all time favorite and deserves to be a rock anthem. It basically signifies what rock music is all about. It is about defying conventions and the status quo, and that you should not be afraid to be yourself ( Scott Davis is the best drummer ever! The distinctive guitar riffs of both Glen and Richie accompanied by Rob’s vocals were a delight to hear in the cold midnight sky. Some fans even lit candles to celebrate the last concert we would hear from this great band. It was a nostalgic trip down history lane. You’ve Got Another Thing Coming and Living After Midnight wrapped up the show but I felt sad and awed to know that this was the last time I would ever see them live in the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Teaching masculinity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Teaching masculinity - Essay Example This paper caters to the question of development of masculinity in young boys through the system of education, and discusses how the concept of gender shapes the existing pedagogy and the democracy of the country. Nature of masculinity The social position of women has been a debatable topic all around the world. The topics on the system of education for girls, their social status and the availability of facilities for them have been put on the table. This issue has an obvious counterpart. If the system of relations is questioned form one side, the other side comes under focus automatically. The question could not inevitably â€Å"be confined to women and girls† (Connell, 2008, pp. 131). The established concept of ‘manhood’ is subject to the changes of time. ‘Manhood’ is bound by the nature of masculinity, practices that are seen as gender specific and deemed appropriate for the male and the preset ideologies. But while the social relations are questio ned, different aspects come under the circumference of the debate. Educational issues are a major part of the debate. The concept of gender has been a part of the pedagogical experiences of the schools and other educational institutions. The pedagogy is based upon the society that houses and rears the boys to make them become what they are. In this concept a vast range of concerns have to be addressed, starting from â€Å"men’s and boys’ health to men’s domestic and military violence† (Connell, 2008, pp. 1

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Assignment for Art Humanities class Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

For Art Humanities class - Assignment Example Other images show kissing between married people as unclean, even when legalized by the matrimony. Though kissing can have other meanings, such as the kiss of peace and the mythical kiss, the Church related kissing to immorality because of its physical gratification aspect. The author presents a compelling argument regarding the treatment of desire in the medieval times. His use of descriptive language specifically helped understand the meaning of kissing images in art and literature. His analyses offer insight on how the Church used the dichotomy between right/wrong, and spirit/body, to further divide the male and female gender and ascribe inferiority to the latter. Thus, kissing has been connected to sin, where the female sex invokes sin among men. This shows that women were characterized as temptresses, whose whorish abilities must be controlled and fought. The Production of the Orient in Said’s â€Å"Orientalism† In â€Å"Orientalism,† Said argues that the Or ient is a product of European imagination and demand for domination through imperialism. He stresses that Europe gains from defining the Orient as â€Å"the Other† because it justifies its control over its people and resources. Furthermore, when Said talks of Orientalist discourse, he pertains to socio-economic and political institutions that reinforce Eurocentricism. Orientalist discourse is not about the Orient as its natives believe it to be, but how Britain, France, and America want to see and discuss the Orient. The difference between what is and what the powers want something to be is related to Camille’s analysis of the Kiss. The Church thinks that the Kiss is inherently evil because of its sexual consequences. In the same line of thinking, Said sees Orientalism as man-made, specifically, produced by imperialist rulers. They manufactured Orientalism for their own purposes, in the same way that the Church generates images of the kiss for its own intentions. The C hurch and the white empires both want to control people through their literature and arts. They similarly impose their will on the powerless, so that the former can maintain and expand their powers. Like Camille, Said performs a visual analysis on Orientalist literature. These images indicate the loss of the Orient to the much more powerful and superior West. Thus, Said argues that the West did not only control the Orient through its political structures, but more so, through shaping its cultural norms and symbols. Not Fury, but Calmness in Freud’s â€Å"The Moses of Michelangelo† In Totem, Taboo, and other Works, Freud interprets the Moses statue of Michelangelo in his essay, â€Å"The Moses of Michelangelo.† He disregards common artistic interpretations that Moses is about to spring into action and the tablets are almost slipping from his left hand. Instead, he believes more in the analysis of Thode, that by virtue of Moses’s position in an array of scu lptures and the actual muscle tensions in his body, Moses is in a state of perpetual wrath, but not ready to perform any immediate action. Freud thinks that Moses is not preserved for a historical event, but as a character whose experiences have aroused inner feelings of anger and

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Second Amendment to Reduce Gun Violence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Second Amendment to Reduce Gun Violence - Essay Example This means that although this right is regulated, people still have a right to have a gun. Policies at the federal, local and state levels have attempted to address gun violence through a variety of ways, including restricting firearm purchases by youths, setting waiting periods for firearm purchases, enforcing of laws and community policing strategies, strict penalties for gun law offenders, education programs on gun safety for parents and children and community-outreach programs. Federal legislation also aims to prevent the sale of weapons deliberately to criminals domestically and people involved in uprisings abroad through prohibition of ATF. The legislation also prevents the local law enforcement from accessing digital databases for identification purposes of weaponry sale places for weapons recovered at the scenes of crime. The second amendment should not be revised since it protects the people from despotism from their own government or invasion. The amendment removes the powe r of the government to regulate firearms and also prevents the president or whoever is in charge of authority from restricting the freedom of the people of the United States in case a martial law was declared. The second amendment also emphasizes that citizens have to possess enough arms and ammunitions in order to maintain a status of independence from any authority that might attempt to abuse them including their own government. The second amendment gives private citizens the right to have knives, swords, pistols, rifles or anything else they want to defend themselves from others or the government. The second amendment does not have the constitutional authority to work against the wants of... Second Amendment to Reduce Gun Violence Gun violence is one of the leading causes of premature deaths in the United States because young victims are usually involved. Gun violence in the United States is highly extraordinary, and the homicide rate in the country is seven times higher than the combined homicide rate of 22 other high-income countries. There is a high prevalence of gun ownership in the country and less restrictive gun laws that are crucial contributions to the rates of violence as a result of crime in America compared to other countries with the same revenue levels with it. The American government is caught up in the firearm issue. Millions of American citizens own guns and use them responsibly but a few thousand gun owners on a yearly basis do not. There are huge economic costs associated with gun violence in the U.S because violent crime reduces tax revenues that local governments require to cater for the broad range of citizen needs. In order to reduce gun violence without revising the second amendment, new legislation and regulations that preserve the basic freedoms contained in the Bill of Rights must be made. The legislation must hold the view point that the privilege to possess weapons is only for life, property and liberty protection than any other selfish means. To be even, technology should be adapted to improve response times and stop intruders of any kind since regulating firearms alone cannot keep schools, streets and the public safe.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Positions of Individual versus Society in Terms of Cognitive Essay

Positions of Individual versus Society in Terms of Cognitive Development - Essay Example This concept leads to several questions. Piaget saw the child as a solitary learner and discoverer, and on the contrary, Vygotsky emphasized on the social and cultural nature of the development. According to Vygotsky, a child's psychological development happens within social interactions, not through the unfolding of the innate structures. Development is a phenomenon that cannot be separated from its social and cultural contexts. Therefore as per his theory, individual is a part of the sociocultural matrix, where social interactions play important and fundamental roles in the development of cognition. It can said that not only the genetics and the environment, cognitive development is a manifestation of the influence of a mix of social forces surrounding the individual. The environment and individual change continuously, rather not in a staged fashion as prescribed by Piaget, and with these qualitative changes, the individuals produce new developmental accomplishments and mark new developmental milestones. If one compares these two paradigms, it will be evident that Piaget believed that the child him or herself is the most important source of cognitive development. ... Piaget relied upon the clinical method where he used probing questions to discover what the children understood, and Vygotsky on the contrary was concerned with the historical and social aspects of the human behavior that is unique for human nature. By his theory of genetic epistemology, Piaget studied the mechanism of acquirement of knowledge and was interested in errors that children make and suggested that these were nonrandom. He was on the look for a systematic pattern in the production of these errors and worked towards providing a logical and internally consistent explanation of these errors. In Piaget's view, development is a natural process with extension of the child's ideas from the child to the world with an invariant sequence of mental development in stages. On the contrary, as has been mentioned earlier, Vygotsky was concerned with the historical and social aspects of unique human natures. His theory suggested that social and cultural factors contribute to the developme nt of intellect, and speech is a tool of thought, and in that sense, development of speech carries culture in that it stores the ancestry of experience in the social context. Human being, in that sense, is unique because they use these tools to create artefacts to change life conditions. Thus, according to Vygotsky theory, ideas originate as a dialectical process of social, cultural, and historical factors in an unending and orderly pattern. Piaget believed that intelligence arises in a progressive fashion in a child's repetitive activities, and the child developmentally acquires concepts of space, time, causes, and physical objects and begins to have fantasy and symbolism right in the infancy. These can be interpreted by

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The High Blood Pressure Essay Example for Free

The High Blood Pressure Essay The double whammy for people with hypertension is that the extra adrenalin required by being overweight or obese: constricts our arteries and blood vessels to raise our blood pressure and give us an energy boost ready to defend ourselves or to escape a dangerous situation; and it could also lead to type 2 diabetes! The good news is that losing weight need not be difficult or involve unappetizing diets. Losing weight is a natural way to reduce our high blood pressure. Here are my tips on how to lose weight healthily: # 1. Exercise: Take regular moderate cardiovascular exercise, such as brisk walking. Just 30 minutes brisk walking each day will improve our general health. Our heart and lungs will be strengthened; and, we will lose weight if we are burning more calories than we consume. We will also lower our high blood pressure. # 2. Diet: Adopt a healthy, calorie controlled diet that is rich in fresh fruit and vegetables, and is low in fat and salt. Avoid adding salt to your food at the table. Try to eat five different fruits and vegetables each day, of which at least one should be a green vegetable. Choose lean cuts of meat and try to have two portions of oily fish, such as salmon or mackerel, each a week. Some of the most successful weight loss diet plans advocate having six small healthy meals a day in stead of the usual two or three large meals. Try out the principles of food combining which lends itself to having several small meals a day. # 3. Drink plenty of water: Try to drink at least two litres of water a day; not all at once, of course, but aim to have eight glasses of water spread out through the day. Doing this will help you feel fuller for longer, reducing the temptation for us to cheat on our healthy calorie controlled diet. Our bodies will also be properly hydrated. Dehydration can cause high blood pressure.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Sam Houston Summary Essay Example for Free

Sam Houston Summary Essay Sam Houston had to face many obstacles since he was a little boy. He had very little education; however he educated himself with many readings from his father’s library. Houston served as governor for Tennessee and Texas. He also served as a United States senator for thirteen years. . He befriended General Andrew Jackson and remarried three times. Houston was made the first president of the Republic of Texas in 1836 and was re-elected in 1841. He gave many speeches throughout the years. Houston died on July 26, 1863, in Huntsville, Texas. Sam Houston, fifth child of Samuel Houston and Elizabeth Paxton Houston, was born on March 2, 1793. His father, Samuel Houston, a member of the revolutionary member, went bankrupt in 1806 and had no other option but to sell the Timber Ridge and move west to Tennessee. His father died the same year! A year later, Sam Houston, his mother, and his eight siblings resided south of Knoxville in Maryville, Tennessee. At the age of fourteen, Sam Houston had little education but spent a large amount of time reading books in his late father’s library. He also spent a great amount of time clearing land and developing a farm. The family decided that he would work as a clerk in a store because in his brother’s eyes he wasn’t doing anything worthwhile. Sam showed no interest in this job which resulted in his disappearance from the job and home. He crossed the Tennessee River with the Cherokee Indians. Houston joined a band of approximately three hundred Cherokees led by Chief Oo-loo-te-ka. The chief liked Sam greatly that he soon adopted him and gave him the name â€Å"Colonnen†. Colonnen refers to â€Å"The Raven† which is a symbol of good luck to the Indians. He went into debt due to bringing gifts home to his Indian friends each time he went to visit his family. At the age of nineteen, Houston had to find a way to get out of debt and decided to become a teacher. He charged the students a higher rate than usual which only took six months to pay off his debts. At the beginning it was just a way to make money but he soon realized that he had a strong interest in teaching. The War of 1812 had begun shortly after Houston began teaching. His career ended really soon. â€Å"Euclid soon defeated him and ended whatever thoughts he may have had of a permanent careers as a teacher. Houston was not amongst the early volunteers of the war; however he decided to enroll in a local academy to further his education in math. On March 24, 2013, Sam decided to enlist in the United States Army. Within a few weeks of training he became a sergeant. Nine months later, Sam was promoted to third lieutenant. Early in the 1814, Houston came under command of General Andrew Jackson. He became really good friends with Jackson for approximately thirty years. During the war, Houston was wounded and General Jackson ordered him to stay out the rest of the battle. The Indians refused to surrender. Houston volunteered to lead the attack; however his men hesitated to go forth, Houston ran forward and the Indians ended up shooting him twice in the right shoulder. Jackson ordered the Cherokees to complete the battles which forced the Indians to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson. This treaty consisted of giving up their claims to more than three-fifths of Alabama. Sam Houston was treated at one of their hospitals in eastern Tennessee and then transported back to Maryville. After the treatment he was assigned to the Southern Division of the United States Army. He was on light duty in the adjutant general’s office. On October 28, 1817 Houston was appointed federal subjacent to the Cherokees. At the age of twenty-five, on March 1, 1818 he resigned from the army and as Indian subagent too. Three months later, Sam Houston returned to Nashville to begin the study of law with Judge James Trimble. It only took Houston six months to learn and pass the bar examination. He then moved to Lebanon and opened a law office. In 1819, Houston was elected attorney general, and he then returned to Nashville. He was very successful and knowledgeable but he was not satisfied with the pay. He resigned in1820 in private practice in Nashville. â€Å"In 1823 he ran for the United States House of Representatives from the ninth Tennessee District. † (pg 15) Houston’s second term ended on March 1827, he went back to Tennessee to run for governor. He put himself in the public’s eyes by attending political rallies and any events that included the voters. â€Å"In early September he defeated Cannon by more than 11,000 votes in a total of more than 75,000 and won the governorship. † (19) In 1824 Sam Houston was introduced to a woman named Eliza Allen. She was only twenty and Sam Houston was thirty-five at the time. He asked her father for his permission to marry his daughter. Her father gave him permission to wed his daughter. She did not love Sam; however her family pretty much pressured her into marrying Houston only because he was a successful man. She followed their command and accepted his proposal in October 1828. They exchanged wedding vows on January 22, 1829 at the Allen’s home. Unfortunately, three months after the marriage his wife left him and went back home to her family. She refused to be with him and on April 16th Houston resigned as governor of Tennessee. It is still unknown why she left Houston, although she was pressured into marrying Houston. Sam and his companion, H.Haralson, journeyed down the Cucumber River to Ohio on April 23, 1829. He ended up in Arkansas with his Cherokee friends. His companion continued to travel leaving Houston behind with his adopted father and friends. Sam Houston soon discovered that the Cherokee nation had to move out of Arkansas and into east-central Oklahoma. The Cherokees were worried that the whites were going to take their current land again. Houston became their advisor and a listener to the Cherokee tribe. â€Å"Houston departed to Washington to inform President Jackson that several Indian agents should be removed and the Treaty of 1828 honored. He traveled to Washington D. C. to inform how the Cherokees received unbroken promises and that they rather have money verses gold. Sam Houston wed another woman, Tiana, while still married to Eliza. It wasn’t a big deal because she was considered Indian and his other wife was Cherokee. Within time he got a weakness for alcohol. It started interfering with his everyday live, was turned down when he campaigned for a position on the Cherokee council, and he also hit his adoptive father. Soon after, his mother fell ill and was rushed back to her home in Tennessee where she died in September 1831. A month later he traveled back to the Cherokee nation. In April he was arrested and punished for striking congressman, Stanbery, with his cane. He was found guilty and received a reprimand. In October 1832, Houston started preparing for his trip to Texas; however his wife refused to go. Houston left her some of his possessions and then divorced her. Sam Houston set up headquarters in San Felipe and began to plan a defensive strategy against the Mexicans. The volunteer soldiers under Stephen Austin battled and successfully took San Antonio, killed Milam, and forcing General Cos to surrender. The soldiers believed that the war was over; however Houston was not convinced that it was over. He made a public announcement that Texas was in need of 5,000 trained men by March 1, 1836. While Houston and the men prepared for the war they were approached by Fannin and the two leaders that won at war in San Antonio. Fannin, Johnson, and Grant came in making promises to the soldiers causing thousands to leave Houston and to join their militia. Sam Houston continued to lead approximately sixty to seventy men. On January 20, Houston traveled to San Felipe to meet with Governor Smith. Houston spent the rest of February with the Cherokees and Indians in the northeast. After arriving at the convention site, Washington-on-the-Brazos, he received news that Santa Anna’s army had attacked Texas and â€Å"besieged† the Alamo and the remaining soldiers. The declaration of independence was adopted on March 2nd. Two days later, Houston had become â€Å"commander in chief of the land forces of the Texian army both Regulars, Volunteers, and Militia, while in actual service. † On March 11th, Houston reached Gonzalez and found 374 volunteers that were led by Edward Burleson. While preparing the men for war Houston received news that Santa Anna’s army had â€Å"taken† the Alamo and attacked and burned all of its defenders. Houston ordered Fannin and his army to retreat to Victoria. They were captured and murdered by the Santa Anna’s army. On April 20th, the battle began between Santa Anna and Houston’s soldiers. Unfortunately, Houston was injured during the battle. Houston’s army men had captured and killed many men causing Santa Anna to offer a peace treaty. Houston refused until both government leaders were present. Fortunately, Houston’s approach succeeded. Sam Houston and Eliza’s divorce was not final until 1837. Houston served as president for two years, December 1836 to December 1838. He was reelected in September 1840. In 1836, a small group of soldiers were attacked by the Mexican General Santa Anna. Houston’s army won the battle against the Mexican forces at San Jacinto and gained independence for Texas, opened up a law office, and promoted a land development after his term expired. He traveled to Mobile, Alabama to interest a wealthy merchant, William Bledsoe, in the Sabine City project. While visiting the Bledsoe estate Houston met Margaret Lea. They were married in Marion, Alabama, on May 9, 1840. They had eight children. Margaret convinced Houston to stop drinking and attend church. Houston continued to work towards annexation with the United States. He used the United States and Great Britain hatred to one another in hopes to make each country want to snatch up Texas so that the other country could not. With high hopes of joining with the United States, the United States still was unwillingly to annex Texas. In 1845, Texas became part of the United States. â€Å"Houston’s joyous moment at the approach of annexation was tempered by the death of Andrew Jackson on June 8, 1845. The family rushed to the Hermitage but arrived a few hours late. They attended the funeral and were guests at the Donelson plantation for several weeks. † (139) Meanwhile, Mexico was at war with Texas for ten years. Houston remained in Washington to work in support of the war. Houston left Washington in the spring of 1847 because his wife had surgery due to breast cancer. â€Å"Houston traded Raven Hill for land within a few miles of Huntsville and planned to build a home for his family. He remained in Texas for the rest of the year, keeping abreast of the war news as General Winfield’s Scott’s army took Mexico City. † (147) In January 1847, Sam Houston obtained a new six year senate term. Houston became a presidential candidate but Houston’s mind and heart was with his family. In 1852, Franklin Pierce was elected; however if Houston put in the effort he could have won. January 15, 1853, he was elected to a new six-year term as Senate. In October 1853, Houston’s family moved to Independence, a city fifty miles to the southwest, while leasing out his home in Huntsville. In 1859, Sam Houston appeared to be leaning toward retirement. Houston invited the public to vote in his favor; however he did not campaign. â€Å"Texans who wanted his leadership had drawn him into the contest, and they did the campaigning. Houston became the only man in the United States to serve as governor of two states. He promised funds for railroads, schools, river improvements, and a protector of Texas if Mexico should try to battle again. Houston was all about the people he served and not the political party. Some petitioned for him to run for president, but he refused to participate in the national convention. When Abraham Lincoln was elected president of the United States, Houston warned Texans that the civil war was going to happen if Lincoln violated the Constitution. The Texas convention removed Houston from office and replaced him with Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark. This resulted because Houston refused to take oath to loyalty to the newly formed Confederate States of America. He wanted to avoid war at all cost and declined Lincoln’s offer to use the federal troops to keep him in office and Texas in the Union. After leaving the Governor’s mansion, he continued to support Texas. Sam Jr. joined the Confederate Army, against his father’s advice, was wounded at the battle of Shiloh. He was reunited with his family but on crutches. Houston moved his family to Huntsville because United States â€Å"took† Galveston and â€Å"destroyed the Houston’s family’s main source of income. † (197) In the winter of 1863, Houston fell ill. He developed an awful cough and was diagnosed with pneumonia. His wife stayed by his side and heard his very last words before his death, â€Å"Texas†¦Texas†¦Margaret. † Texas and his family were very important to Sam Houston. Sam Houston, one of the most important political figures to Texas. Houston served as governor for Tennessee and Texas. He also served as a United States senator for thirteen years. . He befriended General Andrew Jackson. He remarried three times; however he had eight children with his third wife. Houston was made the first president of the Republic of Texas in 1836 and was re-elected in 1841. He gave many speeches throughout the years. He led a successful battle for Texas Independence. On July 26, 1863, Houston died of pneumonia in their â€Å"Steamboat House. † He will always be remembered!

Friday, September 20, 2019

Tours To Niagara Falls From New York City Tourism Essay

Tours To Niagara Falls From New York City Tourism Essay New York is one of the most popular tourist destinations. It is the financial capital of America and is also called the big apple. A large number of tourists visit New York every year and the number just keeps on increasing. New York has a number of beautiful locations for sightseeing, such as the Statue of Liberty, the Empire State Building, Times Square, WTC memorial, Central Park and many museums, theatres, art galleries, university campuses and amusement parks. Various city tours such as escorted tours, group tours, bus tours, car tours, private tours and individual tours are arranged for the tourists according to their preferences. Escorted tours are structured programs inclusive of sightseeing, meals and accommodations for a group of tourists traveling together, led by well-informed escorts. Escort tours are very popular in America, as they take care of all the details, such as flight bookings, arrival pick up and drop, hotel accommodation, sightseeing and any other requirement that may arise. This gives the tourists a stress- free and enjoyable experience and they are able to make the most of their holiday. The duration of these escorted tours depends on the package chosen by the tourists. They are normally fast paced and wind up in a day or two. Some of the tours cover all the major sightseeing locations in a day, while others offer a more detailed tour. These escort tours give real value for money and time. Tour directors mainly conduct escorted tours and take full responsibility for the tourists and their needs. These tours are conducted by motor coach. Escorted tours offer a very secure sightseeing experience, as the escort is available for any issues tourists might have. A number of New York tour operators offer escorted tours priced at a slightly higher rate than regular tours. Tours To Niagara Falls From New York City New York city is a popular holiday destination, with many attractions and exotic locations. Niagara Falls is located at a distance of one hour, by flight from New York City. Many tour operators arrange convenient one-day tours from the city. The tour operators even arrange the pick- up from the hotel. This is extremely beneficial for tourists who are staying at the New York hotels. Niagara Falls is on the international borders of USA and Canada and can be accessed from both the countries. It is close to Buffalo in New York State and from there, it can be accessed by road. The Niagara Falls is the second largest waterfall in the world and attracts nearly twelve million tourists every year. Some of the tours are conducted at night, when the falls take on a different look. The guided tours are available in foreign languages, such as Spanish, Mexican, Chinese and Russian. These are season specific and are available only in the peak seasons. Most of the tours from New York are also designed for handicapped people and the tour operators make the necessary facilities available, for their transportation and movement. The tour operators also offer discounts on their services. Some tours are arranged by road, but it takes almost eight hours to reach the falls and so the duration of the tour could exceed a day. Boat rides are also included in the tour package, by which tourists get to experience the thrill of being showered by the Niagara Falls. The tours also include a ride in the specially designed elevators that are very close to the falls, to give a closer view. A number of tour operators arrange a variety of tours from New York City to Niagara Falls. Prices vary depending on the type of tour chosen. Free New York City Tours The big apple, as New York is fondly referred to, is the busiest tourist destinations in America. It has a number of attractions and breath-taking locations, that are a tourists delight any time of the day or night. New York is one of the leading metropolitan cities in the world and is considered the finance capital of the world. New York is one of the most expensive cities to tour in the world. Many NGOs and local groups arrange free tours for groups of five to six people. The main purpose of these free tours is to change the opinion many people harbor, that New York is a city without a heart. The idea behind the free tours is to enable tourists with rigid budgets, to be able to enjoy their holiday. These tours help the tourists to cut down on the extra expenses they would normally incur on sight seeing. Some well-known banks also offer free tours of their premises on certain days. The duration of these tours is limited to few hours and tourists need to make advance reservations in order to avail of them. Similarly many public parks, stadiums, art societies and museums offer free tours on certain days and at specific times. These tours also have the free services of qualified guides, who give all the historic and strategic importance of the place being toured. Tourists can also research all the free tour options and reduce their cost on touring considerably. Most of these tours are held as free walking tours to the citys famous landmarks. These free tours are a great way to tour the city and enjoy it with family, friends and fellow tourists. A list of all free tours reveals that, almost half of New York City can be toured without spending much. A Guide To New York City Tours New York city is one of the most popular holiday destinations in the world. It is well known for its tall buildings, nightlife and the world famous Statue of Liberty. This finance capital of the world is expensive to tour, but a little research definitely helps. It is natural to get confused while personally designing a tour of this big city, after observing its diverse cultural heritage. Hence, it is advisable to conduct a little research and use the expertise of a tour guide. Many reputed newspapers and magazines of New York publish city guides, in order to help the tourist to find relevant information, even before arriving in the city. Many travel agents conduct their own research and compile their own guides. These guides could be biased towards their own services. Many professionals choose tourism as a profession and dedicate their whole life to gaining valuable, hands- on experience of the tours available. The tour guides compiled and written by them are by far the most accurate and useful to all tourists. These tour guides can be purchased at reputed bookstores and on the Internet. Many travel related websites also conduct their own surveys and compile tour guides. There are many websites dedicated to tourism in New York and tourists find them very useful. A standard tour guide gives the names, addresses and contact numbers of all the hotels and resorts present in the city. It includes the names of all the travel agents, timings and information regarding all the flights and trains arriving and leaving New York, with location maps. The guides also have information of all the tourist attractions and suitable timings. Important information regarding the emergency telephone numbers and contact addresses of all hospitals, police stations and country specific embassies are also included in these guides.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The October Revolution :: Papers

The October Revolution The October Revolution, is also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first occurring in the Febuary Revolution. The October Revolution was led by the Bolsheviks under the command of Vladmir Lenin and marked the fist officially Communist revolution of the 20th century. The Bolsheviks based there revolution on the theories of Carl Marx, however they believed that they had to press for a change rather than waiting for one to occur. The main crucial revolutionary activities happened in Petrograd were under the command of the Petrograd Soviet’s Military Revolutionary Committee. The revolution was a communist coup against the Russian provisional government, which would lead to the creation of the Soviet Union. The October Revolution was seen as a hugely important global event, and the first in a series of events that lay the groundwork for an epic Cold War struggle between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, mainly being the USA. The Revolutions official name is ‘The Great October Socialist Revolution’ although Russian communists now only normally use this. The term Red October is also often used. What Happened: On October 25, 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in an uprising in Petrograd, the then capital of Russia, against the ineffective Kerensky Provisional Government. For the most part, the revolt in Petrograd was bloodless, with the Red Guards led by Bolsheviks taking over major government facilities with little opposition before finally launching an assault on the Winter Palace on the night from November 6 to November 7. The assault led by Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko was launched at 9:45pm signalled by a blank shot from the cruiser Aurora. The Place was guarded by Cossacks, Women's Batallion, and cadets corps. It was taken at about 2am. The latter date was made the official date of the Revolution. Later official accounts of the revolution from the Soviet Union would depict the events in October as being far more dramatic than they

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Diversification within American Organizations Essay -- essays research

Diversification within American Organizations The United States has the most diverse and multicultural population ever known to man. The symbolic metaphor â€Å"the melting pot,† strongly states that the major problem organizations face in American society is a diverse personnel with different economical status, beliefs, and cultural background; because of this, operating an organization in American society is a very complex task. For many years, researchers struggled with the concept of finding the perfect organizational structure to meet the need of the employee and the demands of society. However, research has consistently shown because of historical American idealism that individuals choose to interact more often with members of their own cultural groups or identity rather it’s gender, physical, race, or religious base. This type of interaction makes managing a diverse work force a major challenge for managers in the 21st century. This paper will examine diversification from four important issues facing today and future American corporations: Gender, Disability, Ethnicity, and Religion. The four issues are protected by Federal and State laws and enforce by Federal and State courts. Since Americans are comprised of individuals from various countries, and different ethnicities many organizations have begun to embrace diversification in the workplace. Diversification within American Organizations (GENDER) The study of organizations shows the significant differences and similarities of groups. American organizations have recognized that the composition a workforce or any organization, is beginning to reflect the composition of American society. Diversity of gender is one that is characterized by rolls of a person or persons. Research has shown that men and women are equal in terms of learning ability, memory, reasoning ability, creativity, and intelligence (Gibson, 96). Some people regard issues of treatment of various employee groups, such as those based on gender, race, and sexual orientation as primarily an issue of moral fairness. Women should be given the same career opportunities as men; homosexual couples should be given the same health insurance benefits as heterosexual couples. American society and culture has changed considerably on these issues over the last 150 years (when women were not allowed to vote and slavery was still practiced), and o... ...rganization. Diversity will challenge organizational leaders to make the necessary changes to develop a multicultural organization in today’s diverse society that fits society demands and the organizational needs. References Bolman, L.G., & Deal T.E. (1997). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Leadership. Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. Braun, Carol M. (1998). Inequality: Opposing Viewpoints in Social Problems. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. Capps, Walter. (1990). The new religious right: piety, patriotism, and politics. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 119-120. Clutterbuck, David (1981). How to be a good corporate citizen: A manager’s guide to making social responsibility work & pay. McGraw Hill Company. Oxford Press, 26-86. Cox, T. (1991). The Multicultural Organization. Academy of Management Executive, 5,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  34-37. Gender in the Workplace. (n.d.) Retrieved June 3, 2002 from Gibson, J.L.,Ivancevich, J.M., Donnelly, J.H. (2000) Organizaions: Behavior Structure

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Emerging Wireless Technologies

A look into the future of wireless communications – beyond 3G Forward: The Public Safety Wireless Network (PSWN) Program is conducting an ongoing assessment of advancements in the wireless communications industry. The scope of this assessment is to identify emerging wireless services and technologies for potential public safety use in the near future and beyond. This particular document is the first of a series of emerging wireless technologies studies. This study will concentrate primarily on the fourth generation of mobile telecommunications and beyond. G – i. e. , an entirely packet switched network with all digital network elements and extremely high available bandwidth. For the most part, it is believed that 4G will bring true multimedia capabilities such as high-speed data access and video conferencing to the handset. It is also envisioned that 4G systems will be deployed with software defined radios, allowing the equipment to be upgraded to new protocols and services via software upgrades. 4G also holds the promise of worldwide roaming using a single handheld device. Wireless Generations At-a-Glance As with all technology progressions, the â€Å"next† upgrades must be in planning and development phases while its predecessors are being deployed. This statement holds true with all mobile telecommunications to date. It seems that it will also hold true for the next generations of wireless networks. The original analog cellular systems are considered the first generation of mobile telephony (1G). In the early 1980s, 1G systems were deployed. At the same time, the cellular industry began developing the second generation of mobile telephony (2G). The difference between 1G and 2G is in the signaling techniques used: 1G used analog signaling, 2G used digital signaling. As experience shows, the lead-time for mobile phone systems development is about 10 years. It was not until the early to mid 1990s that 2G was deployed. Primary thinking and concept development on 3G generally began around 1991 as 2G systems just started to roll out. Since the general model of 10 years to develop a new mobile system is being followed, that timeline would suggest 4G should be operational some time around 2011. 4G would build on the second phase Although the new, third generation (3G) wireless technology has not yet been implemented, leading companies in the industry are already laying the groundwork for what some are calling fourth generation (4G) technology. For the purposes of this article, 4G will be considered those technologies that are still in the planning stages and will not be deployed within the next five years. Researchers are continuing their ideas in the development of an undefined wireless world, which could become operational by 2010. The first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) of mobile telephony were intended primarily for voice transmission. The third generation of mobile telephony (3G) will serve both voice and data applications. There really is no clear definition of what 4G will be. It is generally accepted that 4G will be a super-enhanced version of of 3G, when all networks are expected to embrace Internet protocol (IP) technology. During the last year, companies such as Ericsson, Motorola, Lucent, Nortel and Qualcomm came up with â€Å"3G-plus† concepts that would push performance of approved, though still emerging, standards beyond current ones. Interoperability and the Evolution of Network Architectures One of the most challenging issues facing deployment of 4G technologies is how to make the network architectures compatible with each other. New signaling techniques are being designed specifically to enhance today's second generation (2G) networks, deliver unprecedented functionality for 3G, and successfully drive the Fourth Generation (4G) of wireless, thus delivering immediate and long-term benefits to carriers. With the architecture of each generation of wireless devices addressed in the development of advanced technologies, carriers can easily evolve their systems without additional network modifications, significantly reducing costs and implementation time. Currently, different wireless technologies (e. g. , GSM, CDMA, and TDMA1) are used throughout the world for the 2G, 2. 5G, and eventually 3G networks. There are two approaches being used to develop 4G access techniques: 3xRTT (currently 1xRTT for 2. 5 and 3G) and Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA). These disparate access techniques currently do not interoperate. This issue may be solved with software defined radios. LinkAir Communications is developing a new access technology called large-area-synchronized code-division multiple access (LAS-CDMA). LASCDMA will be compatible with all current and future standards, and there is a relatively 1 GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access easy transition from existing systems to LAS-CDMA (using software defined radios). LinkAir emphasizes that LASCDMA will accommodate all the advanced technologies planned for 4G and that LASCDMA will further enhance either 3xRTT or W-CDMA system’s performance and capacity. Internet Speeds 2. 5G is the interim solution for current 2G networks to have 3G functionality. 2. 5G networks are being designed such that a smooth transition (software upgrade) to 3G can be realized. 2. 5G networks currently offer true data speeds up to 28kbps. In comparison, the theoretical speed of 3G can be up to 2 Mbps, i. e. , approximately 200 times faster than previous 2G networks. This added speed and throughput will make it possible to run applications such as streaming video clips. It is anticipated that 4G speeds could be as high as 100 Mbps. Thus, 4G will represent another quantum leap in mobile Internet speeds and picture quality. Ericsson confirms that 4G could bring connection speeds of up to 50 times faster than 3G networks and could offer three-dimensional visual experiences for the first time. The following graph represents what has been the typical progression of wireless communications: Quality of Service Challenges In wireless networks, Quality of Service (QOS) refers to the measure of the performance for a system reflecting its transmission quality and service availability (e. g. , 4G is expected to have at least a reliability of 99. 99%). Supporting QOS in 4G networks will be a major challenge. When considering QOS, the major hurdles to overcome in 4G include: varying rate channel characteristics, bandwidth allocations, fault tolerance levels, and handoff support among heterogeneous wireless networks. Fortunately, QOS support can occur at the packet, transaction, circuit, and network levels. QOS will be able to be tweaked at these different operating levels, making the network more flexible and possibly more tolerant to QOS issues. Varying rate channel characteristics refers to the fact that 4G applications will have varying bandwidth and transition rate requirements. In order to provide solid network access to support the anticipated 4G applications, the 4G networks must be designed with both flexibility and scalability. Varying rate channel characteristics must be considered to effectively meet user demand and ensure efficient network management. Spectrum is a finite resource. In current wireless systems, frequency licensing and efficient spectrum management are key issues. In 4G systems, bandwidth allocations may still be a concern. Another concern is interoperability between the signaling techniques that are planned to be used in 4G (e. g. , 3xRTT, WCDMA). In comparison with current 2G and 2. 5G networks, 4G will have more fault tolerance capabilities built-in to avoid unnecessary network failure, poor coverage, and dropped calls. 4G technology promises to enhance QOS by the use of better diagnostic techniques and alarms tools. G will have better support of roaming and handoffs across heterogeneous networks. Users, even in today’s wireless market, demand service transparency and roaming. 4G may support interoperability between disparate network technologies by using techniques such as LAS-CDMA signaling. Other solutions such as software defined radios could also support roaming across disparate network technologies in 4G systems. These major challenges to QOS in 4G networks are currently being studied and solutions are being developed. Developers believe that QOS in 4G will rival that of any current 2G or 2. 5G network. It is anticipated that the QOS in 4G networks will closely approximate the QOS requirements in the wireline environment (99. 999% reliability). The emergence of next generation wireless technologies is going enhance the effectiveness of the existing methods used by public safety†¦ 4G Applications and Their Benefits to Public Safety One of the most notable advanced applications for 4G systems is locationbased services. G location applications would be based on visualized, virtual navigation schemes that would support a remote database containing graphical representations of streets, buildings, and other physical characteristics of a large metropolitan area. This database could be accessed by a subscriber in a moving vehicle equipped with the appropriate wireless device, which would provide the platform on which would appear a virtual representation of the environment ahead. For example, one woul d be able to see the internal layout of a building during an emergency rescue. This type of application is sometimes referred to as â€Å"Telegeoprocessing†, which is a combination of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) working in concert over a high-capacity wireless mobile system. Telegeoprocessing over 4G networks will make it possible for the public safety community to have wireless operational functionality and specialized applications for everyday operations, as well as for crisis management. The emergence of next generation wireless technologies will enhance the effectiveness of the existing methods used by public safety. 3G technologies and beyond could possibly bring the following new features to public safety: Virtual navigation: As described, a remote database contains the graphical representation of streets, buildings, and physical characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks of this database are transmitted in rapid sequence to a vehicle, where a rendering program permits the occupants to visualize the environment ahead. They may also â€Å"virtually† see the internal layout of buildings to plan an emergency rescue, or to plan to engage hostile elements hidden in the building. Tele-medicine: A paramedic assisting a victim of a traffic accident in a remote location could access medical records (e. g. , x-rays) and establish a video conference so that a remotely based surgeon could provide â€Å"on-scene† assistance. In such a circumstance, the paramedic could relay the victim's vital information (recorded locally) back to the hospital in real time, for review by the surgeon. Crisis-management applications: These arise, for example, as a result of natural disasters where the entire communications infrastructure is in disarray. In such ircumstances, restoring communications quickly is essential. With wideband wireless mobile communications, both limited and complete communications capabilities, including Internet and video services, could be set up in a matter of hours. In comparison, it may take days or even weeks to re-establish communications capabilities when a wireline network is rendered inoperable. Limitations of 4G Although the concept of 4G communications shows much promise, there are still limitations that must be addressed. One major limitation is operating area. Although 2G networks are becoming more biquitous, there are still many areas not served. Rural areas and many buildings in metropolitan areas are not being served well by existing wireless networks. This limitation of today’s networks will carry over into future generations of wireless systems. The hype that is being created by 3G networks is giving the general public unrealistic expectations of always on, always available, anywhere, anytime communications. The public must realize that although high-speed data communications will be delivered, it will not be equivalent to the wired Internet – at least not at first. If measures are not taken now to correct perception issues, when 3G and later 4G services are deployed, there may be a great deal of disappointment associated with the deployment of the technology, and perceptions could become negative. If this were to happen, neither 3G nor 4G may realize its full potential. Another limitation is cost. The equipment required to implement a nextgeneration network is still very expensive. Carriers and providers have to plan carefully to make sure that expenses are kept realistic. One technique currently being implemented in Asian networks is a Pay-Per-Use model of services. This model will be difficult to implement in the United States, where the public is used to a service-for-free model (e. g. , the Internet). Conclusions 4G networks may eventually deliver on all the promises. At times, it seems that technological advances are being made on a daily basis. These advances will make highspeed data/voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) networks a reality. In the meantime, it is important for industry to develop a strong 3G offering that is palatable for the general public. Equally as important, industry must ensure that expectations are realistic and that services meet and exceed those expectations. If all goes according to what the industry envisions, it may be sooner, rather than later that we will see wireless communications evolve. This evolution will give the general public as well as the public safety community amazing functionality from the convenience of a single handheld device. Postscript: The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to next-generation wireless communications. In coming articles, further developments in 4G (e. g. , services, billing, protocols, and standards) and other emerging wireless technologies will be presented in greater depth. References

Monday, September 16, 2019

Roles and Responsibilities in Lifelong Learning

Danny Bostock Roles and responsibilties in lifelong learning. Case study of a teacher/tutor/trainer in the lifelong learning sector. This role may be drawn from from a part of the sector in which you work, or where you wish to work. Where appropriate, it will be acceptable for some of your information to be summarised in tables, charts or diagrams. You must include: Clear evidence of relevant reading Inportant principles Professional valuesAtleast 3 references to support your findings Word count = 500-800 (+/- 10%) Summarise key aspects of legislation,regulatory requirements and codes of practice relating to own role and responsibilities As a consequence of a lawsuit which led to the life sentences of Marie-Therese Kouao and Carl Manning for the abuse and eventual murder of Victoria Climbie in 2003 a public enquiry was launched, which widely criticized many services put into place to protect children. Associated reading: Ann Gravell’s Teaching CycleMany failings where found and as a result a series of government measures where put into place to reduce the risks to vulnerable children and young adults. The most relevant to the case of Victoria Climbie was the introduction of the children act 2004, and a new strategy ECM (‘every child matters -change for children') ,this was designed to repair the flawed system which led to such blinding incompetance from various departments as a result of not communicating with each other and sharing their findings in order to cross reference them.This has so far made huge improvements to the amount of support 0 to 19 year olds receive and as a result reduced the chances of repitition of cases such as this. Pg 1 Danny Bostock As part of this development towards higher levels of accountability in 2007 the learning and skills sector introduced a new framework of teacher qualification requirements which asked that all teachers, trainers a nd tutors working in colleges and other publicly funded organisations to hold an appropriate teaching qualification.In 2008 a code of practice was introduced covering the activities of teachers working in the broader lifelong learning sector (LLL), to be regulated by the institute for learning(IFL). A number of the legislative provisions relate to my own work for brighter future workshop which is a community based social enterprise that provides supported vocational training and personal development opportunities to young people with severe learning and physical disabilities from deprived local communities. This support is delivered in a safe and secure workshop enviroment.My job has many requirements from me such as safeguarding myself and my students from various dangers as well as making sure our equal opportunities policy is applied in all activities each and every day in order to give the students the best possible experiences within their time with me. The policy's principals require that: Everyone is of equal value and worth Negative discrimination is unacceptable and will not be tolerated Attitudes which lead to harmful, prejudiced behaviour will be challenged and changedEvery trainee has different strengths and abilities; it is our responsibility to enable each one to realise their full potential pg 3 Danny Bostock Hence BFW abides by the IFL code of practice, in its pursuit of professional integrity, respect for others and the care of learners, and is fully commited to fulfilling the five ECM outcomes for its young trainees, namely of being healthy, staying safe,enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and achieving ergonomic well being.In order to ennsure my compliance with the relevant legislation (equality act 1977), within my workplace each and every student is at first assessed throughout various intervals in order to identify the differences in their learning abilities and styles, from this I can come up with a plan of action on h ow to tailor my teaching methods around them so the student benefits from the classes as much as possible.This is made difficult in my workplace as needs ; abilities can vary on a regular basis aswell as reactions to surroundings, because of this our initial assessment is in a state of constant review. Explain your roles and responsibilities in lifelong learning for promoting equality and valuing diversity in maintaining a safe supportive learning environmentAt Brighter future we have a very successful programme that has provided dedicated , one to one vocational training and personal developmental support to young disabled and disadvantaged people for over seven years, with the aim of changing the lives of people who have significantly fewer opportunities than most people in society. My role is to support the training coordinator and workshop manager in the development of the following components aimed at maximising opportunity and accessibility for people who would otherwise be ex cluded from mainstream opportunities.Flexible personal training and development programmes have allowed trainees to progress at their own pace, thereby achieving a range of benefits in terms of improved life skills, greater self esteem and new technical/vocational abilities One to one mentoring and support by trained technicians has allowed disabled trainees to quickly gain confidence snd self belief, build trust and learn a range of mechanical and electrical skillsGroup tasks involving disabled beneficiaries and disadvantaged young people has removed social barriers such as discrimination and prejudice, and promoted greater social cohesion and wider awareness of disability issues Danny Bostock Correctly structured and supported training that has enabled some disabled trainees to take on additional responsibilities as qualified mentors and/or training assistants,as well as the supervision of some operation tasks such as fault checks, stock deliveries and database support.Many disabl ed people remain on the margins of society and it is the role of all the staff at Brighter future to redress some of these inequalities. For example, young people in Lancashire with disabilities (and other special needs) are more likely to be living in poverty than their peers, and are twice as likely not to be in education, employment and/or trainingpost 16. pg 4

Sunday, September 15, 2019

An Outline and Evaluation of Moral Development Through

An Outline and Evaluation of Moral Development through Piagets Theory and the Social Learning Theory Piaget (1932) developed a major theory based on children’s cognitive methodology when approaching particular moral situations; using the game of marbles and moral stories/dilemmas to evaluate the moral development a child. In his evaluation he categorised children into three stages of moral development i. e. pre-moral (0-5yrs), Moral Realism (5-8/9yrs), Moral Relativism (+9yrs).Concluding that children under five didn’t consider moral reasoning Piaget concentrated on the two latter stages. Piaget believed these stages are innate, they occur naturally; only through cognitive development will a child begin to move from moral realism to moral relativism. Moral realism is when a child has a heteronomous moral perspective with unilateral respect showing unconditional obedience to adults. They are egocentric and their moral judgement is based on consequences and intentions are not considered, with punishment being expiatory and usually unjustifiably severe.When a child reaches the stage of moral relativism, they have an autonomous moral viewpoint, they understand mutual respect and that rules are made through social agreement. They are able to recognise that there is a grey area between right and wrong and their moral decisions are based on intentions rather than consequences. Punishment is reciprocal i. e. shows balance between severity of the crime and the punishment received. He noted the importance of a child’s social environment and their interaction without an authority figure e. . in the school playground, here they learn to negotiate conflict and will start to understand resolution/compromise. According to Wright (1971) Piaget’s theory is supposed to show how a child’s practical moral development occurs but the evidence in fact was based on theoretical morality. Piaget linked this through the concept of conscious realization e. g. children can talk using the correct grammar long before they realize that there are rules that govern grammar.Implying that a child's practical morality shapes their theoretical morality; an adult’s moral influence won’t affect but will only help and guide a child’s theoretical morality catch up with their practical morality. Armsby (1971) suggests young children understand intention and show awareness to avoid damaging valued items, older children find it easier to differentiate the relation between intention and damage. Piaget’s stories confounds intentions and consequences, when approached separately Constanzo et al. 1973) confirmed that with adult disapproval six year olds judged on consequence regardless of intention but with adult approval they as with older children will consider intentions. Notably, social consequences are related to parental tendencies as children generally will have more experience in dealing with ill-intended acts. To sup port Piaget’s theory, Kruger (1992, cited in Gross, 1996) tested conflict resolution amongst children with and without an authoritarian figures involvement by giving them two moral dilemmas and questioning them afterwards.The children who had been paired with an adult had less real insight, lacking moral reasoning because they had given way to the adults understanding. When questioned afterwards, they had a less sophisticated stance-point than the children who had been paired together, showing the advantages attributable to egalitarian active discussion. As Piaget’s investigations were only based on a small amount of subjects, whereas Jose Linaza (1984) interviewed several hundred children in relation to a number of games; participants were from England and Spain, both boys and girls.He re-affirmed Piaget’s findings but found that depending on the games complexity this determined what age certain stages become more apparent, another notable finding was there was no difference between the English and the Spanish children. Turiel (1998) critic’s Piagets methods regarding the moral dilemma questions used as a child would find it difficult to be morally judgemental because of the drastic difference in consequence. i. e. fifteen cups versus one cup, thus tempting the child to ignore intention.Rule et el. (1974) shows that young children understand the difference in intention, particularly dependant on whether the act is pro-social or hostile i. e. if an aggressive act is in defence of another or not. Bandura, McDonald. (1963) doubted Piaget’s theory; in particular the concept of stages by explaining moral judgement through social learning theory, generally children imitated the models behaviour even if their reasoning differed.As social learning theory involves the key factors attention, retention, reproduction and motivation and children are said to be able to imitate others behaviour through observational learning, since moral b ehaviour can be observed and imitated there will be a definite link between SLT and moral development. Bandura et al(1961, cited in Haralambos & Rice, 2002) Bobo Dolls studies on SLT were criticised due to the artificial conditions i. e. he subjects were not geographically selected at random thus pre conditioning could have influenced results and because of the nature of the Bobo Dolls (they sprung back when struck) the children could then have perceived the aggression the models showed towards the dolls as a game. Therefore, the need to have an understanding for the aggression was lacking and since the children observed no vicarious punishment (verbal or physical) they would have no need to make a judgement, they didn’t have any reason to dissuade them from performing the behaviour.Interestingly, Langer (1975) replicating Banduras experiment concluded that his techniques confused the children. After viewing the model half of the children’s moral judgements remained th e same and when they did change their explanations didn’t. When a child is trying to form identification they will associate with and imitate/model themselves on other people’s behaviour/mannerisms. Though this is not confined necessarily and exclusively to parents as other family members, siblings in particular together with peers will play a significant part in a child’s behaviour.A child may imitate a complete stranger’s behaviour especially if vicarious reinforcement is shown as the child then has the motivation to imitate this particular behaviour. Children may imitate behaviour without the insight to make a moral judgement. Notably, Hoffman’s research observed that age dependant children are more likely to imitate a role models deviant behaviour rather than the models compliant behaviour, this emphasises a lack of moral development. (1970, cited in Bukatko & Daehler, 1998) Grusec et. l (1978) focused on whether or not a child would imitate a models good behaviour (donating/giving) with or without verbal instruction. What is shown in her results was that through observing, the majority of children, even without verbal instruction imitated the models behaviour. Nelson (1980) found that children as young as the age of three are able to make intentional based decisions regardless of consequence as long as information on intentions is made clear. Observational learning and principles of reinforcement can not adequately explain all aspects of moral development as a child’s cognitive processes are not fully explored.As explained by Turiel (1983) in this study, children who receive punishment too late for non-compliant behaviour seems to show a leniency towards deviant behaviour, the late timing mentioned only seems to confuse the children, once again showing a lack of understanding/judgement. Insightfully, the above-mentioned studies on moral development confirm clearly that children even from a very young age imitate o ther people’s behaviour and whether they understand the intentions or consequences of any particular behaviour is questionable especially at a young age.The concept of conscious realisation is a cognitive process which would only develop depending on the moral influences of a child’s socialization, emotional attachments, level of education and life experience. Bibliography Armsby, R. (1971) A re-examination of the development of moral judgements in children. Child Development, 42, 1242-1248 Bandura, A. & McDonald, F. J. (1963). Influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children's moral judgments. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(3),  274-281. Bukatko, D. & Daehler, M. W. (1998).Child Development: A Thematic Approach. New York; Houghton Mifflin. p. 410. Costanzo, P. , Coie, J. , Grumet, J. , & Farnill, D. (1973). A re-examination of the effects of intent and consequence on children's moral judgements. Child Development, 44(1) , 154-161. Gross, R. (1996) Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour. London: Houghton & Stoughton. p. 696. Grusec, J. E. , Kuczynski, L. , Rushton, J. P. , & Simutis, Z. M. (1978). Modelling, direct instruction, and attributions: Effects on altruism. Developmental Psychology, 14, 51–57. Haralambos, M. A. & Rice, D. (ed) (2002).Psychology in Focus, Ormskirk; Causeway Press. p. 316-317. Langer, J. (1975). Disequilibrium as a source of development. In P. Mussen, J. Langer, & M. Covington (Eds. ), Trends and issues in developmental psychology (pp. 22-37). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Linaza, J. (1984). Piaget’s marbles: the study children’s games and their knowledge of rules. Oxford Review of Education, 10, 271-4. Nelson, S. A. (1980). Factors influencing young children's use of motives and outcomes as moral criteria. Child Development, 51, 823-829. Piaget, J. (1952), Moral Judgement of a Child, London : Routledge and K.Paul Rule, B. G. , Nesdale, A. R . , McAra, J. R. (1974) Children’s Reaction to the Information about the Intentions Underlying an Aggressive Act: Child Development, 45(3) pp 794-798 Turiel, E. (1983)  The Development of Social Knowledge: Morality and Convention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Turiel, E. (1998) Moral development, in: W. Damon (Ed. ),  Handbook of Child Psychology, 5th Edition, Volume 3: N. Eisenberg (Ed. ), Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, pp. 863-932 (New York: Wiley). Wright, D. (1971). The psychology of moral behavior. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.