Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Causes and Effects of Stress in Daily Life - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 387 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/09/16 Category Environment Essay Type Cause and effect essay Level High school Topics: Emotion Essay Did you like this example? Causes and Effects of Stress in Daily Life Stress comes from many different things and is the cause of many problems in a person’s life. There are different type of stress that mostly people experienced in there lives. The Acute, episodic and chronic stress. Each of this stress has a different types of characteristics, symptoms and treatment. Mostly people suffer from acute stress and experienced a perceived threat either physical, emotional or psychological that can cause our body to experiences and increased the levels of hormones and to increase the heart rate, breathing and higher blood pressure. Episodic stress is more severe type of acute stress. This type of stress is often more difficult to diagnose. Mostly people suffer from this type of stress experience symptoms everyday. The most common symptoms are headaches such as migraines, tension, being irritable, feeling anxious or even pain in the chest. According to Benjamin H. Gottlieb, Chronic stress is oft en defined by continuing the possibility or expectation of potential harm. The most common sources of stress in people’s life are often categorized like Death of spouse, family or friends. Health, crime, sexual problems, alcohol or drug abuse or financial, and the life changing, for instance the divorce, separation, marriage or new baby. Argument with spouse, family member, friends, co-workers or boss. Physical changes to include lack of sleep, new work place and hours and the demands of the job and relationship with co-workers, new responsibilities and to understand the roles and regulations of the new job and the support that there getting to a co-workers or supervisors. A lot of people suffers stress from the work place. to include the lack of feedback on the performance, poor communication with their own teams , working long hours and uncomfortable work place. The general causes of stress that most common of people experienced are physical threat, social threat and financial threat. In particular it will be worsen when the person feels they have no response that can reduce the threat, the need and sense of control. When a person dealing with stress it can become fear that leads to imagined the outcomes. Uncertainty, unable to predict , and feeling not in control and lastly feeling being cognitive dissonance. It occurs when they cannot meet the commitments and being perceived as incapable and dishonest. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Causes and Effects of Stress in Daily Life" essay for you Create order

Monday, December 23, 2019

Essay Online Social Networking - 981 Words

Online Social Networking sites have been rapidly emerging over the past decade. They are changing the way people interact, make and break friendships, gossip and communicate. This essay will explore the extent to which social networking has re-defined social relationships and consider whether or not the impact of social networking is generationally specific. Online social networking could be defined in many ways depending on which book, article or journal you are reading. One way social networking is defined is; an online service or website that focuses on reflecting the social networks or social relationships among young people who may share the same interests or activities. The encyclopedia of management (2009) stated that geographic†¦show more content†¦Life’s most important social interactions no longer rely on face-to-face exchanges. Brown’s research tells us that â€Å"the internet has drastically re-shaped our individual social lives over the distance of just a couple of decades, luring us into a virtual world where traditional interactions such as living, loving, belonging and separating require new protocols† (Brown, A, 2011 p 29). For many in the future, the path followed when falling in love may be via an online website. Dating sites, which we have once thought of as an â€Å"uncool† way to meet and connect with new people, have grown in popularity. They may perhaps be seen to have taken on the role that was once filled by family and friends. ‘Facilitating and managing relationships online is projected to become close to a billion dollar industry in the United States in 2011’, (Brown, A, 2011 p30). Changes in online social relationships have increased rapidly, particularly over the past 30 years. ‘Generational differences increase as the pace of social change increase’, Shapiro said, (Salman, J, 2009). Several different generations, for example the baby boomer generation, generation Y and generation X, have embraced online social networking. As of 2009, 73% of teenagers between the ages of 12-17 use online networking sites. This is an increase from 58% in 2007. Specifically, 82% of teenagers between the ages of 14 17 and 55% of youth between 12 13 year olds have a social networking profileShow MoreRelatedOnline Social Networking Service Created By Paul Budnitz And Todd Berger1034 Words   |  5 PagesEllo is an online social networking service created in 2014 by Paul Budnitz and Todd Berger. This website was created as an ad-free replacement for the existing social media networks such as Facebook and Pinterest. Ello’s manifesto as mentioned on its website is that â€Å"we believe in beauty, simplicity, and transparency. We believe that the people who make things and the people who use them should be in partnership.† Ello is designed by creators, for creators. It is not a service to sell or buy productsRead MoreFacebook Is An Online Social Networking1079 Words   |  5 PagesFacebook is an online social networking website founded by Mark Zuckerberg along with his fellow Harvard College roommates Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, Eduardo Saverin, and Chris Hughes. The website allows you to create your own wall on which you can share images, personal information, videos etc. Through the site’s messaging feature persons are able to connect with friends, families and many other people around the globe. The success and popularity of the website has attracted over a billionRead MoreOnline Social Media And Social Networking Essay1568 Words   |  7 Pages2Details author2@email.com 3Details author3@email.com Abstract: Online social media services like Facebook witness an exponential increase in user activity when an event takes place in the real world. This activity is a combination of good quality content like information, personal views, opinions, comments, as well as poor quality content like rumours, spam, and other malicious content. Although, the good quality content makes online social media a rich source of information, consumption of poor qualityRead MoreEffects Of Online Social Networking On Society966 Words   |  4 Pageswith each other and our environment. Through the development of social networking, it has easily kept us updated on what is going on around the world and in other people’s lives. Instead of face-to-face communication, the younger generation perceives social media to be a place to share emotional connections and stay connected with their significant other. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of online social networking constructing romantic relationships. With the many different waysRead MoreThe Effect Of Social Media On The Working Environment And Survey Its Utilization As A Successful Business Tools1678 Words   |  7 Pageslook over the effect of social media communication in the working environment and survey its utilization as a successful business tools. The paper will investigate the drivers of improvement and obstacle to change and investigate whether the explanations behind a few associations forbidding or limiting social media communication in the working environment is generally established or corporate suicide. The paper looks to investigate the connection between social networking and organizational societyRead MoreOnline Consumer Behaviors And Social Networking1822 Words   |  8 Pagesmomentum of social media and social networking, technology-enabled social commerce has emerged to combine the power of online social networking with shopping. This study examines an emerging area in E-commerce , i.e., social commerce. Extending the online consumer behavior typology, this study categorizes online consumer behaviors into three types: transactional, informational, and social. While traditional E-commerce supports the transactional and informational aspects of online shopping, social commerceRead MoreSocial Networking, The Good And Bad1384 Words   |  6 PagesWashington Sociology Mr. Nash 12 December 2015 Social Networking, The Good and Bad Just a few years ago, the idea of an online social network was revolutionary. While the Web has always provided a way for people to make connections with one another, social networking sites made it easier than ever to find old friends and make new ones. Today, it s rare to find someone who hasn t at least heard of Facebook, MySpace, Twitter or one of a hundred other social networks. Even Web veterans may find some ofRead MoreSocial Networking Effects On The Socialization Of People1302 Words   |  6 PagesIn twelve years the social networking site has surely grown quite a bit from the site intended to allow Harvard students to connect with one another. Today, Facebook is a site filled with advertisements and cheaply made free-to-play games. Cat pictures and cheery posts that say, â€Å"Like/share if you love Jesus!† riddle the landscape of a service that is supposed to be actually connecting people. Things like this have led people to lose hope in online social networking. To some it seems likeRead MoreEssay on Facebook and Social Networking947 Words   |  4 Pagespart of the popular Facebook culture for various reasons, such as its renowned opportunities for keeping in touch with current social circles, reunifying long lost family and friends and broadening prospects of finding new companions. Facebook removes some of the barriers that may limit our regularity of communication with people, upholding the geographic differences, social class, busy lifestyles and economic factors that may usually discourage us from regular contact. (Cooke 2011, pp. ix-4) FacebookRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On The Workplace Essay1563 Words   |  7 PagesSocial media becomes important in people’s lives despite age, gender, social level, profession, language or locality. Modern technologies are used by individuals including student nurses across the world for different purposes, such as, to stay up to date with worldwide news; exchange information or ideas and share views; aid in recovery and education; keep in touch with family and friends. This comes with great responsibilities for nurses not only to become confident social media users and incorporate

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Local Ethnography On Women’s Pay Equity Free Essays

In modern era of technological advances and scientific innovations business nevertheless remains the epicenter of global events. Therefore, labor market to great extent is associated with equal human rights and productive human relationships that form the basis for social justice. The latter, as viewed by the majority of sociologists, is an equal treatment of society members regardless of their social status, condition, race, gender, political preferences, religious beliefs, etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Local Ethnography On Women’s Pay Equity or any similar topic only for you Order Now Social justice is regarded as the medium for every individual to achieve goals and have identical opportunities in modern society characterized by various economic, cultural, social, and political inequalities. In Canada each federation is governed by federal employment laws, which prohibit discrimination based on gender and sex. Also, a number of provinces have introduced new laws on wage gap elimination among men and women. Top managers along with sociologists were supposed to conduct surveys in their working atmosphere on the topic of women’s pay equity comparing fair treatment and compensation for work among occupations dominated by men and women. Results showed that women involved in both full and part-time jobs received less money than men. In fact, in late 1990s female workers earned 75% of the amount of money their male colleagues had regardless of the fact that according to the research their abilities to successfully negotiate with clients and work hard on the given tasks were several stages higher than those men were characterized by. Basically, it would be fair to claim that there exist several challenges modern social justice in Canada may experience throughout its attempts to achieve equal treatment among women and men in terms of financial and compensative situation: First of all, there is a strong tendency in the Canadian society to resolve the issue of wage gap and sex discrimination among men and women without resorting to legal assistance. Typically, these situations do not receive publicity and remain unknown being tackled on individual level. Most often, becoming a victim of underpayment or pay inequity women tend to seek other ways of additional income without leaving their previous jobs. This results in the situation when officially women are satisfied with their condition. Secondly, pay inequity has much in common with timetable as according to the recent research middle-aged women earn much less money than those in their twenties or thirties or than men of any age. Also, ethnicity and race play an extremely important part in the issue. â€Å"Visible minority women have the lowest income and highest unemployment rates of all groups.   In 1995, the average income of visible minority women was $16,600, compared to $17,100 for other women in Canada, and $23,600 for visible minority men† (Recommendations to the Pay Equity Task Force). The concentration of women in certain â€Å"underestimated† spheres is traditional and pronounced to high degree. For instance, the service industries include such jobs of no prestige and low income as waitress, cleaner, nurse, etc. According to the survey conducted in 2005, about 65% of working women are involved in service industry and have a part-time job due to numerous overwhelming home duties. Working several hours per day on regular basis greatly contributes to the issue of wage gap as such women are perceived as unqualified workers and add to the problem of poverty. Also, they tend to have low level of livelihood, which may cause poor living conditions resulting in high expenses on health care, etc. With these preliminary considerations in mind, it would be fair to claim that the issue of pay inequity reflects the adverse status of women in Canada. It denotes that despite numerous social changes implemented by work groups and both governmental and non-governmental organizations, the notions of self-employment and flexible working hours among women still remain of current importance. â€Å"In 2001,over three-quarters of a million women reported being self-employed, representing 11 percent of those with jobs. Over the past decade, 39.6 percent of new jobs in Canada were linked to self-employment, and 44 percent of those who are self-employed earn less than $20,000 a year†. (Recommendations to the Pay Equity Task Force). According to the Canadian Human Rights Act it is unlawful to evaluate the same task accomplished by men and women differently and pay unequal amount of money in the same organization.   The Act comprises all categories of state employees and necessary conditions for the implementation of the law. However, many find fault in the section that deals with the wage gap issue, as it is not catered to the needs of women. Forming the main risk group and therefore most often applying to higher echelon with complaints that require numerous formal rules and signatures, women tend to refuse from the idea of publicity especially taking into account the fact that the application requires certain expenditures and does not always guarantee the petitioner’s satisfaction. In order to support women and resolve the issue of unemployment, wage gap, and poverty among them there is a need in creating an efficient action plant that will meet the criteria of governmental establishments in terms of legal policy and comply with the demands of women in the community. The following are the decisions to be made:  §Ã‚   To gather all necessary available data on the problem of women’s pay equity. This will help the participants of the program to realize the scale of the issue and properly organize preventive measures. After the materials are received and processed, it is important to spread the information in the test field and among those who are relatively or not at all familiar with the problem. This may be implemented through mass media, public gatherings, etc. Identifying the problem helps in its faster and effective solving.  §Ã‚   To organize clubs and societies where unpaid or low-paid women will have an opportunity to talk about their previous or current experience, share their own ideas on how to reduce the number of those suffering from social inequity. It would be a significant contribution to the implementation of the project as the victims are the best source of thoughts and ideas on how to help people to solve the problem.  §Ã‚   To enlist governmental, non-governmental, and public organizations in the program including their financial support as project sponsors. To encourage them to tighten already existing rules of their companies in terms of wage gap and money distribution.  §Ã‚   To encourage women to start their own business and actively participate in public life  §Ã‚   To support women in new beginnings and promote their further professional education and training  §Ã‚   To collaborate with various associations and groups such as the Canadian Federation of Business and Professional Women Clubs  §Ã‚   To issue newspapers or journals on the topic  §Ã‚   To create favorable working atmosphere for women (especially of foreign origin).  §Ã‚   To promote global interaction among the members of the high-risk group portraying adverse conditions and consequences of inability to speak up and be assertive.  §Ã‚   To promote equal payment for jobs of identical value  §Ã‚   To uphold safe working environment with all necessary skills such as computer literacy, etc.  §Ã‚   To eliminate violence against women and avoid excessive number of men in the staff. In conclusion, it would be appropriate to note that the main objective of the action plan and other projects connected with the indicated above problem is to destroy the traditionally established stereotype denoting that women are supposed to be involved in low-income sector. â€Å"Policies such as paid parental leave, equal employment opportunities and the promotion of fair bargaining can improve women’s ability to participate fully in the labor market† (Pay Equity). In order for us to succeed it is necessary to create a positive image of independent and smart woman who in fact always remains such and demonstrate her ability to cope with tasks that traditionally are only given to men.          How to cite Local Ethnography On Women’s Pay Equity, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Discovery of My Past free essay sample

Heavy breathing. Locked eyes. Pounding footsteps. I watched the fastest runner in all of Arrowhead High Schools history. He broke the recordThen again. This was the vivid day when my mindset of the entire world transformed. Work ethic was in my blood since a young age, based upon religious values and family tradition. I understood work ethic; yet never contemplated the full picture. Passion—the fuel of my Irish ancestors who took voyage to the shores of America. The mighty land of golden roads and unlimited jobs they thoughtthey were wrong. Struggle, corruption, and survival were more accurate. More than just work ethic was the key to constructing a new life in a foreign land. Passion—my ancestors lived this first hand. Chaos. Riots. Freedom. My father grew up during Vietnam, the Civil Rights Movement, and the counter-culture. One bathroom, two bedrooms, and a pull out couch for his parents, accommodated a family of ten. We will write a custom essay sample on Discovery of My Past or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He became a man at a young age, taking care of his family and making his own decisions—a necessity during times of disarray. While the world spun, he remained focused, working multiple jobs and becoming independent as he moved to California to fulfill his dreams. Belief in an idea drove my father home to write the next chapter of his life. A business unimagined at the time was the opportunity my father had seen. Nine years without a single day off, he worked to create a successful international company, while creating a marvelous family. Passion—my father lived this first hand. War. Riots. Devastating storms. This is my chapter in my familys history. Four years ago, witnessing the fastest runner in school history brought reasoning to my eyes. What drives an individual to succeed is found in the heart then carried out through actions. Planning, training, and executing goals, have been my life throughout high school as I have become a State and Regionally ranked runner. Experiences in life bring out the best in people. My passion is bettering myself while helping others along the way. Eventually, I too will exit this world, and hope my future family continues with the same traditions, taking their lives to new heights. Passion—I am living this first hand.

Friday, November 29, 2019

The unique quality of this tragic experience is created by the impetuous rashness of youth Essay Example For Students

The unique quality of this tragic experience is created by the impetuous rashness of youth Essay How Does Shakespeare Present Young Love In Romeo And Juliet? In todays society, Romeo and Juliet would be considered young love because it is so uncommon. But in sixteenth century England, it was quite normal for fourteen year olds to marry and have their first child by the age of sixteen; which is why many people consider one of the main themes to be young love. There is, undoubtedly an element of youth in this play but it is the nature of youth athwart societys prejudices, i.e. not being allowed to love someone because of their name: Whats in a name? However there are many other types of love in the play. We will write a custom essay on The unique quality of this tragic experience is created by the impetuous rashness of youth specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Our first meeting with Romeo shows us a stylised conventional view of love, also known as Petrarchan love (due to the Italian fourteenth century love poet Petrarch). This is what characterises Romeo in the opening scenes of the play: he postures and sighs; he understands that Rosaline is not to be hit with Cupids arrow: 1.1.206; she is out of his league, yet neither is he able to forget her, nor depite teasing from Benvolio and Mercutio, is he prepared to try and do so. During the first scenes of the play, Romeo is conspicuously absent and we can tell that he is suffering from lovesickness, the object of this unreturned being Rosaline. He is adamant that there will be no other woman, yet he is equally certain that she does not return his feelings. This accounts for the confusion that we see in the first conversation with Benvolio: 1.1.158-256. His speech is characterised by oxymoron and antithesis as he struggles to make sense of his dilemma. Romeos depression persists even when he i s making his way to the ball, and he is a soft target for Mercutios wit though he feels that something dreadful will bitterly begin his fearful date, something that will end with his untimely death: 1.4.109-12 Our first introduction to Juliet is at the Capulets ball where Romeos confusion and self-doubt are immediately banished when he sees Juliet for the first time and notices how she appears in the dance like a snowy dove trooping with crows: 1.5.48 However, this is quite ironic, because only a few hours ago he had been sobbing his heart out for his love of Rosaline: a typical example of young people not knowing what they want, not just in love but in life. However, in contradiction to this view of youth, the language Shakespeare uses when convey the message of Juliets beauty is of a much higher quality than that used to describe Rosaline. Shakespeare uses, when comparing things, figurative language. As a rich jewel in an Ethiops ear. Shakespeare also constantly uses light and dark imagery. His main reference to light and dark is the stars. On one level the stars represent fate the pair are star-crossed lovers and fated to die. On another level a star shows up against the night sky, like Juliet across the dance floor. What we have is a love that is coruscating, but short-lived, passing across the dark face of a troubled society. Additionally, the image carries with it excitement and a mesmerising speed of action. When Romeo first speaks to Juliet, Shakespeare employs a sonnet: to subtly elevate the opening lines of their love affair: 1.5.93-106. The point about the sonnet is that it has a strict form with an intricate rhyming scheme. There are 3 quatrains 3 verses of 4 lines each and a final rhyming couplet. When the sonnet is carefully analysed you will see that the first quatrain is given to Romeo, the second to Juliet, they share the third and together compose the rhyming couplet. What enhances the poetry an d makes it more effective is that it is as if Romeo and Juliet are on the same wavelength, a sure sign that the pair are in love. .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 , .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .postImageUrl , .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 , .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4:hover , .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4:visited , .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4:active { border:0!important; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4:active , .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4 .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u680459fd5fc73dd2de656e46a7c065a4:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How responsible are these adults for the tragedy? EssayThere are many different views of love in Romeo and Juliet, but none more entertaining than Mercutio. A way to understand the character of Mercutio is to look at his name. A mercurial person is eloquent, active, sprightly and changeable attributes that are most certainly evident in Mercutio. Mercutio is an attractive character that brings life and fun into the play through humour, wit and puns. He is very different from the serious minded Benvolio. His blunt advice to Romeo is to be rough with love: 1.4.27. Mercutios death is the tragic force of this play. His immediate response to his injury is make light of it but w hen he realises the gravity of the wound he utters a cry that will forever sum up the fate of the innocent, A plague o both your houses: 3.1.106. However, in contrast to Mercutio, Tybalt is a relatively one-dimensional character. He is hot-tempered, vindictive and aggressive. He dislikes love generally I think, because he dislikes peace; he hates the word: 1.1.67-8 and to be at peace, is to love. But it is not in kinsmen, that these lovers confide, but in the Nurse and Friar Lawrence. The Nurse, who has been Juliets closest friend and confidante is earthy and fun-loving yet insecure. She is a servant of the Capulet family and therefore speaks in prose. She is not a particularly clever person nor is she a sensitive one but she comes across as a comic figure. She is though, despite her insensitiveness, genuinely caring, as she is quick to warn Romeo not to lead Juliet into a fools paradise, particularly because the gentlewoman is young: 2.4.160-162. One suspects that she likes men; she is clearly taken with Romeo. The Friars role in the play parallels that of the Nurse. Romeo respects him and he too is fond of the young man. He acts as a guidance counsellor for Romeo and he is quick to point out the inconsistencies with Romeos love. Nevertheless hes persuaded by Romeo that what he had felt for Rosaline was not love but love read by rote that could not spell: 2.3.88. He has what could be a sense of destiny: he feels it is in his power to alter history, which impels him to conduct the marriage in order to turn your households rancour to pure love: 2.3.92. Yet it is the friars sense of destiny that has got him so deeply involved in the tragedy and possibly is the cause of Romeo and Juliets death. Romeo and Juliet die as a direct consequence of the hatreds of the society in which they find themselves. Their deaths make them permanent symbols of the power of love, which triumphs through all adversity, one that is destined to forever symbolise the tragic loss in all divided societies. Romeos love for Juliet is true as is Juliets for Romeo. And the speed of their love is incredibly quick. Inevitably so, as events move so quickly, mistakes will be made. The vital message fails to reach Romeo in Mantua. Romeo races to be with his love when all that he hears is she is dead. Romeo feels that he cannot live without Juliet. She is his light amongst the darkness of the troubled society in which the story is based. He ends his life with the subtle and swift use of poison. Juliet rouses herself from her cataleptic state fractionally too late to save her beloved Romeo and herself. If Romeo had waited, would everything turned out all right? The answer to that we will never know, but one thing we can safely say is that the unique quality of this tragic experience truly is created by the impetuous rashness of youth. This is portrayed through Shakespeares ingenuity that can create a language which in all its diversity can capture the most beautiful love story ever.

Monday, November 25, 2019

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Bierce Essay Example

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Bierce Essay Example An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Bierce Paper An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Bierce Paper Ambrose Bierce uses realism to portray the dark reality of the Civil War in his 1890 short story, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge. However, Bierce does not portray the brutality of the Confederates, regarded as the enemies of history. Instead, Bierce makes us sympathize with a Southern slave owner, Peter Farquhar, turning our pre-conceived notions of a just war on its head. Using the positive portrayals of the main characters family, the reader begins to feel for the Southern plantation owner. Even with Farquhar’s support for the Confederacy and slavery, which Bierce does not heavily address, the reader begins to root for him to escape his demise. Through Bierce’s negative representation of the Union, Farquhar himself, and the use of family emphasizes the theme of realism throughout An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge. Bierce seems to think that war is a brutal cause with no real reward. â€Å"Many veterans like Bierce wondered why they had fought at all (Hess).† Using his own experience in the Civil War, he portrays war as unnecessary violence through his story An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.The story starts out by showing Peyton Farquhar standing on Owl Creek Bridge and he has a noose around his neck. He is about to be executed for burning down the bridge, which is a crucial supply line for the Union. With this beginning alone, we can see the brutal side of war. A man, who is not dressed like a soldier, but a civilian, is about to be executed. There is no evidence that a trial has occurred that has led to this situation. Instead, it seems like a Union army general has condemned him for death. This thought alone can make one shudder. Not only did he not have a fair trial, Farquhar didn’t have a trial at all. Martial Law, in which the military is in control of the laws and the fun ction of areas such as jail and sentencing, has been thrown upon Farquhar. This is not only prevalent in the Civil War, but in wars thought history.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Judy Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Judy Case Study - Essay Example In this case, the nurse failed to promote due diligence and this resulted in the full cardiac and respiratory arrest of the patient. Here, Judy is a patient with acute depression and suicidal ideation and hence, she needed high quality patient care. However, the nurse did not meet the standards of quality care. To illustrate, the nurse did not notice the psychiatrist leaving the room and she was not cautious about the possibility of danger with the bathroom that had kept unlocked. Similarly, the psychiatrist neglected to inform the nurse that Judy was alone in the room. Evidently, the negligence of the nurse and the psychiatrist (ethically) compromised patient safety in this regard. The nurse was negligent for unlocking the bathroom door and allowing Judy to shower herself. The case study clearly indicates that Judy had high suicidal tendency and hence, she was admitted in a 24-hour emergency mental health unit. She made a suicide attempt there and was subsequently moved to a 15 minu te observation protocol. It clearly reflects that Judy was extremely prone to suicidal thoughts so she might make another suicide attempt at any time. The psychiatrist might not notice that the bathroom door had been unlocked as it was not her responsibility.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The British Invasion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The British Invasion - Essay Example The chords of their music were also simple (but beautiful) that everybody can relate. The themes of the lyrics of their music are also universal that anybody can relate whatever the generation, background or orientation of the listener. Themes like love and hope contained in the lyrics Let it Be and Here There and Everywhere are universal human aspiration that will always find an audience regardless of generation. Yes it is. The combination of skiffle, rock and roll, folk and to some extent jazz that characterizes the music of the Beatles still have a following in this generation and such, it is still applicable today. The Beatles were also real artists. Meaning, they wrote their own song, composed their music and arranged their own melodies unlike with many of today’s performers whose music pre-made by recording companies and they are just asked to perform. In fact, artists who make their own music are more esteemed today. Are there any non-American bands or performers that you regularly listen to today and how does their national identity figure into their music and public presentation (are you aware of the nationality of your favorite bands)?   I listened to Bob Marley. Yes I am very much aware about his national identity and his brand of music. He is a Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician. His national identity influenced his genre of music which reggae. I believe that Bob Marley is Jamaica’s equivalent of Beatles in Great Britain. He is very popular even outside Jamaica and his music also finds audience in different generation. Their music are timeless (finds new audience in every generation) and can cross varying cultures speaking about the same themes of human experience such as frustration in No Woman No Cry, love and hope in Redemption Song and One Love that would always touch audience whatever generation or nationality they may belong. His presentation also speaks well of

Monday, November 18, 2019

CRM Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

CRM - Essay Example 1. Introduction Is the customer always right? The customer may be the king, but is it worth pursuing to retain all the customer accounts? These are some of the dilemmas an organisation face, especially when a customer relationship have entered a cul-de-sac. The basic premise of customer relationship management is about attracting, developing, maintaining and retaining profitable customers over a period of time (Massey et al., 2001). Figure 1: The basic premise of customer relationship management Adapted from source: Massey et al., (2001) 2.Theoretical underpinning Payne and Frow (2005) delineate functional dimension of CRM and stated that it concerns with creating improved shareholder value through development of appropriate relationships with key customers and customer segments by making a fusion of the potential of relation marketing strategies with IT to create profitable, long-term relationships with customers and other key stakeholders. ... re 2: The service profit model suggested by Bentum and Stone (2005) Source: (Hussain et al., 2009, p.120) From the figure above, the service profit chain (SPC) is evident and urges that the value creation process is indeed a horizontal cross-functional process, rather than standalone views contained within each function (Heskett et al., 1994). Behind the theoretical underpinning of CRM, a major vector is to be able to fight competition; and an enterprise after implementing the CRM system should be profitable and add to shareholder’s value. However, at the core of the CRM remains the customer which must be attracted, developed, maintained, and retained in a profitable way. But does it mean that all the customers to be retained for as long as possible? Should the organisation pursue it with obsession? Saubert’s (2011) case study on â€Å"Which accounts are worth keeping?† provides a clue to this question. Saubert suggests that there should be a fruitful communion o f attrition propensity and profitability models (Saubert, 2011). Studying in the context of Australian Banks for credit card holders, Saubert opine that while devising customer retention strategies, firms should weigh the value earned from each customer. The firm’s CRM strategy needs to be guided by answer to two fundamental questions: Figure 3: Two fundamental question that must guide a firm's CRM strategy Adapted from source: (Saubert, 2011) Saubert (2011) opines that while firms usually strive to increase customer loyalty and reduce attrition but tend to overlook these two questions. The Performance Improvement Council (2008) states that in an ideal world, loyal long term customer relationships would eventually evolve towards partnerships and quotes Michael LeBoeuf, author of How to Win Customers & Keep

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Benefits And Drawbacks Of Social Media Marketing Essay

Benefits And Drawbacks Of Social Media Marketing Essay This case introduces Web 2.0 social media in virtual worlds, networking sites, and video sharing sites, and entices students to explore the opportunities and risks they are confronted for brands. The case allows students to fight with the strategic and tactical decisions that accompany marketing communications strategy and to merge information on consumer behaviour with an understanding of brand objectives, in order to assess and evaluate new social media options. Foley, brand manager, is facing a more and more complex media environment in which her conventional media plan which is focused on television, print, and radio advertising, has become less popular due largely to declining audiences and a surge in advertising clutter, plus consumers tuning out. She is exploring emerging Web 2.0 social media options to determine if they can better achieve her branding and advertising objectives. Her challenge is to curtail the entire buzz surrounding Web 2.0 and to analyze the social medias p ossible for her brand by delving into the consumer dire needs and behaviours support Web 2.0 technologies Case issue: I think UnMe Jeans is a suitable brand for social media and the Web 2.0. Their target market is women between 12-24 years old, and this segment is consuming less traditional media, and increasing their consumption in the Web 2.0. With new technologies and platforms they can regulate the ads or somehow avoid them and still enjoy their favourite TV shows or any type of entertainment. I think its evident Web 2.0 is the right path for UnMe Jeans, the question is how to do it. The benefits social media offer to UnME Jeans are: The social media attracts more people than traditional media so they can reach more possible users as customers. They can target their audience with more accuracy and in a more efficient way. The idea is to make the costumers part of the social media community, to get them involved and get a deeper engagement with the brand. The drawbacks social media offer to UnME Jeans are: Lack of control of the content: Foley, Brand Manager of UnME Jeans, is faced with a challenge as she reconsiders her advertising media plan due to the increase of social media options on the emerging Web 2.0. These options become even more intriguing with the steady price increases of television advertising despite the growth of several unfavourable conditions. Working with her advertising agency, Foley must effectively use her brand management skills to choose which social media channel, if any that she should incorporate into her current advertising media plan. The advertising agency suggested three viable options, Zwinktopia, Facebook, and YouTube. Zwinktopia is a virtual world targeted to girls ages 13 to 24 with a focus on fashion and music, Facebook is a social networking, profile page site, and YouTube is a user-generated video-sharing website. I suggest that Foley pursue the Zwinktopia social media channel as a starting point to take advantage of the emerging Web 2.0 and also make a minor investment in the other options to develop their web 2.0 presence. Key issue of unme jeans: Looking ahead Foley the brand manager of unme jeans realise that the trends were driving the radical change in media market that had potential to reduce the effectiveness of her current media plan. The consumer media habit were rapidly changing because the peoples are more attracted towards the internet Driven by the proliferation of new technology like the personal computer dvd players and ipods these all new electronic devices are main reasons of changing consumer behaviour Foley the brand manager of unme jeans was confuse in between advertise in television and advertise in internet which is better for marketing. Foley advertising agency had provided her with a plan to bring her plan to three social media outlet. Zwinktopia, facebook , youtube. She knew that she wanted to do less talking at and more talking with her consumer and she wanted to use media outlet where consumer is more receptive offer brand story and which would foster the most constrictive dialogue about her brand She also wanted to use programme that would seamlessly integrate with and support her exiting media plan. But most of all she wanted to social media programme to make on impact on her sell. Swot analysis: Strength: Unme jeans was one of the most successful junior denim brand available in market The unme brand story revolved around celebrating the individuality of teenage girls and encouraging teens to speak out against peer pressure and conformity Unme jeans are available in upscale department store and especially retailer across the united state and sold at a slight premium to comparable the brand Weakness: The changing of consumer media habit and proliferation of new technology like a personal computer dvd player and ipods consumer were tuning out traditional media like television magazines news paper and radio and tuning into new media options Opportunity: The opportunity for the unme jeans is web 2.0 applications are those that make the most intrinsic advantage of that platform Delivering software essay continually update service that get better and more people use it. The web 2.0 is also called consumer co-creation because that gave consumers the ability to direct contribute to the online conversation and contain that was available on the web. Three web 2.0 advertise opportunity mainly are Zwinktopia facebook and you tube Threats: Remember that new things always get better and to advertise brand web 2.0 the company need to invest more on advertising which is not possible for every company. Analysis of the case: Just like any business problem, Foley is faced with several issues in making her decision to change her advertising media plan. With a full knowledge of the issues, Foley can better analyze her options in the process of making a justified decision. Rapidly changing consumer trends There is a clear indication that consumers media habits have evolved due to the proliferation of new technology. There are more outlets available that resulted in the change of how their market consumes media. Much of these changes were geared towards online outlets, especially among the younger audience. In order to remain successful, the company must ensure they can quickly respond to the rapidly changing. Formulation and evaluation of alternative: Benefits and Drawbacks of social media: Youtube: Benefits: Promotes high involvement and participation Large demographic availability, it allows marketers to target the audience appropriate for their product Some forms of experiments have shown optimistic results have given marketers an option to choose layout and position of their ads. For eg: participatory video ads, in-video advertising . Proven successful when used as the right channel and not only an alternative for Television ads. Drawbacks: High cost of marketing and additional cost on developing competently made videos. Lack of control over the content Still in research and test stage and it may back fire if not blended well. For eg: pre-roll ads. Language and location restriction Zwinktopia: Benefits: Promotes the ideals UnME stands for i.e celebrate individuality, non-confirming attitude. A new way of expression. Have the right demographics for UnME i.e teenage girls, the website are focused on fashion and music. Marketers can promote relevant ads in the virtual world. Can be linked to other social media like facebook  and Myspace. Drawbacks: May not influence real world sales for the company. There are over 200,000 virtual products which increase competition and fight for market share that may not give return for the company. Facebook: Benefits: Highest demographic segment among the target audience. Also has the highest average time spent on the website and highest frequent return of the user to the page. Easy access to information on the users, hence the target market can be served with relevant ads based on their profile page. Acts like a discussion forum where users interact with the brand and discuss their interests. Videos can be promoted on the website as well. Drawbacks: Since users may view over 500 pages of content the recall value may drop significantly. Lack of measurement tools to measure success. High cluttering on the network may make the users indifferent to the ads. May lead to over advertising and hijack  the very purpose Recommendation: Besides the fact that there are more people today than any other website that visit Facebook, On Facebook it is all about the interactions and discussions that occur between its users. So seeing the attractiveness of the platform as mentioned above Facebook can be used for advertisements to reach a more targeted audience in fewer costs. Another great feature of Facebook is the fan page. This feature allows a company or a brand or a product to create a Facebook page solely dedicated to it. There, users are enabled and encouraged to share opinions, information, criticism, or whatever else. When these kinds of conversations happen, it creates an atmosphere for free discussion and a buzz about that fan page. All these aforementioned features are just some of the countless great tools available on Facebook for marketers such as Foley to promote their brand. Social media provide sales professionals with the opportunity to listen and influence through their participation. Not using Facebook would simply result in a significantly missed opportunity for Foley. In addition to that, her brand will look inferior to the other brands that seize the opportunity of social media. Overall, using Facebook provides more impacts in terms of reach, frequency, receptivity and presence. In addition, page views, unique visitors and the time spent on the site in Facebook is larger than others. Therefore I recommend Facebook rather than Zwinktopia and YouTube. Of course, if the budget allows, the company uses other media platforms and have to make synergy effect based on Web 2.0 concept. It requires additional efforts, but it must be a good approach. As mentioned before, I recommend that Facebook is the best choice among three suggested plans. One of the reasons is the openness of Facebook. With the development of the information technologies, Facebook has evolved. Currently Facebook is not only a simple social website, but a big platform. The company uploads and maintains various types of contents, people can access Facebook via many different ways, and the contents of Facebook can flow through the Web. Therefore, if the company has an appropriate plan, it is possible to make big synergy effects. Implementation Plan Implementation Component: Managing Change X Instructional Practices Curricula An Assessment System X Professional Learning Communications ResourcesPurpose: To create a brand valuegh of unme jeans and advertise using facebook as a social media. Action Steps What Will Be Done? Responsibilities Who Will Do It? Timeline By When? (Day/Month) Resources Resources Available Resources Needed (financial, human, political other) Potential Barriers What individuals or entities might resist? How do we address this resistance? Communications Plan Who is involved? What methods? How often? Step 1: To use facebook to create ads related to the product. Advertising Agency May 2013 A. Facebook B. Human resource Time Deploy more people to create and upload the ads Everyone Step 2: To create fan page on facebook because of that users are enabled and encouraged to share opinions, information, criticism, or whatever else. Advertising Agency June 2013 A. Page maker in facebook B. Human resourse- creative team The tool of making pages might be difficult to use. Training and developing creative team Everyone Step 3: Social should be use and not neglected Advertising Agency N.A A. Facebook B. You Tube C. Zwinktopia A. lack of tech savvy people. B. create awareness about social media platform. Everyone Step 4: Advertising Agency Begin in August and continue throughout 2012-2013 A. Current Textbooks B. Internet C. Parents D. Time E. Manipulatives F. Training A. Time All teachers Step 5: Implement ELA Shifts 2, 3, and 5 All Teachers Begin August 2013 A. Document Cameras for Smartboards B. 6-Trait Rubrics C. Training A.Time B. All Teachers Evidence Of Success (How will you know that you are making progress? What are your benchmarks?) Evaluation Process (How will you determine that your goal has been reached? What are your measures?)

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Female Literature Deserves the Same Regognition as Traditional Male Lit

Female Literature Deserves the Same Regognition as Traditional Male Literature Literary critic, Jane Tompkins targets the "male-dominated scholarly tradition that controls both the canon of American literature - and the critical perspective that interprets the canon for society" (502), in her exploration of the canonical exclusion of Kate Chopin's The Awakening, written in 1899, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 short story, "The Yellow Wallpaper." Tompkins further notes that "the tradition of Perry Miller, F.O. Matthiessen, Harry Levin, Richard Chase, R.W.B. Lewis, Yvor Winters, and Henry Nash Smith has prevented even committed feminists from recognizing and asserting the value of a powerful and specifically female novelistic tradition" (502-3). Tompkins' criticism of the scholarly tradition not only asserts the existence of a male-dominated literary paradigm and exclusivity but, with this literary 'gate keeping', also questions how tradition becomes imprinted upon us so as to color our judgment. Tradition becomes the constant, the thing we write, read, rebel against and, interestingly, the thing we supplant with a new tradition once we are excluded from the established boys' club. But how does a so staunchly established tradition, which determines the inclusion and exclusion of literary works, come to be? Tompkins posits the existence of a male-centered agenda that masks its biases as "universal standards of aesthetic judgment" (503). These "universal standards" of aesthetics are subsequently biased against domains which have traditionally been declared feminine. Tompkins indeed contends that "twentieth-century critics have taught generations of students to equate popularity with debasement, emotionality with ... ...knowledging and paying homage to the powers that we keep in power, all in the name of tradition. Tradition is a paradox, for it oftentimes seems bigger than us; our own creation becomes a wall, seemingly insurmountable and impenetrable, that indeed crumbles by our own questioning and refutation. Works Cited Baym, N. (1978). Woman's Fiction: A Guide to Novels By and About Women in America 1820 – 1870. Ithaca: Cornell U.P. Bloom, H. (1975). A Map of Misreading. New York: Oxford U.P. Kolodny, A. (1980). A map for rereading: Or, Gender and the Interpretation of Literary Texts. New Literary History: A Journal of Theory and Interpretation 11, 451-67. Tompkins, J. P.(1985) Sentimental power: Uncle Tom's cabin and the politics of literary history. Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860, New York: Oxford U.P.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Transaction Costs Economics

Introduction The conditions of doing businesses change dramatically for the past century and especially for the past 30 years. With the continuous improvement of the infrastructure marked by transportation, communications and technologies, as well as changing role played by the government and the financial markets, firms found new ways and equipped with new abilities to control their operations and interact with suppliers, customers, competitors and other stakeholders. Given the above infrastructure changes, vertical integration became a logical option for firms as the demand of product and market size increased tremendously which allowed the high-volume production since the early 90s. With the continuous advancement of the production and telecommunications technologies, it comes to a stage whereby market became a viable substitution of organisation as the exchange coordinator. Hence, one of the most important strategic decisions of firms is to define their boundaries and under what circumstances should they consider using market instead of internal organisation to coordinate exchange. This essay is to try to describe the key characteristics of Transactions Costs Economics (hereafter TEC) and with real life examples given as how it affects the decision of using market vs. organisation. Also, by quoting the example of Sony (battery), Apple (iPod) and firm that I am working with, we can see how firms define their vertical boundaries and what is the role played by coordination in a vertical chain. TEC One of the principle contributors to the study of TEC is Oliver E. Williamson. While Williamson drew on the earlier work done by Ronald Coase regarding the concept of transactions costs, he further advanced it and had developed the Transaction Costs Analysis (TCA) theory in the 1970s and the 1980s. In the neo-classical approach of economics study, firm is treated as a â€Å"black box†, and internal workings of which were not considered to be important. TEC, however, argued differently. It tried to explain why firms exist and why they existed in a particular form of structure and the extent to which it will integrate vertically, given the existence of transaction costs. Transaction costs can be aroused from: ? researching potential suppliers ?collecting information on prices ?negotiating contracts ?monitoring the supplier’s input ?legal costs incurred should the supplier breach contractual negotiations Another key characteristic of TEC is its underlying assumptions, namely bounded rationality and opportunism. Bounded rationality refers to the fact that people are bounded by the limits of their own knowledge and memories. People may also be bounded in their rationality when they are overloaded with information which is beyond their processing abilities. Opportunism refers to the possibilities that people might try to maximize their own benefit by lying about their true intentions or chances that people might exploit another party by taking advantage of unforeseen situations. It is worthwhile to mention that while TEC had tried to modify the assumptions under neo-classical decision theory by adding the deceitful human behaviour element in TCA, the core assumption of profit maximisation is still maintained. One of the key methods to maximize profit is to minimize costs. By assuming that management and the owners of the firms are rational, they must compare the cost of internal co-ordination, which includes the cost of internal production and the cost of governance, to the cost of using the markets, which includes external production cost and transactions costs. In essence, management is considering the â€Å"Make or Buy† decision when they do the cost comparison exercise. With the assumptions highlighted above, TEC then attempts to explain why a firm will integrate vertically by specifying three attributes that are used to characterize any transactions s, i. e. Frequency, Uncertainty and Asset Specificity. TEC argues that these attributes will determine whether transaction costs will be lowest in an organization or in a market. For frequency, it refers to the situation whereby firm will seldom integrate vertically if the services rendered or goods produced are rarely used. For uncertainty, it may be rooted from bounded rationality described above and from a situation whereby different parties involved had asymmetric information of the exchange. High uncertainty would generally lead to vertical integration, given the savings in transaction costs outweigh the costs incurred for vertical integration. For asset specificity, arguably it could be the most distinctive element in the TEC theory. As investment in relationship-specific asset that cannot be redeployed to another transaction without incurring extra cost or sacrifice in the productivity of the asset, it would lock the parties into the relationship to some degree. The level of specificity will increase if an asset has little value in alternative use. With the existence of this attribute, transaction costs may increase so much that it may push potential firm away from using market. In turn, firm will internalize the exchange by vertically integrating the firm that provided/offered the specific assets. With the notion of the investment in relationship-specific asset, it transforms the relationship between trading partners whereby parties which made investment in relationship-specific assets, the relationship changes from a â€Å"large numbers† bargaining situation to a â€Å"small numbers† bargaining situation. This situation is described by Oliver Williamson as the fundamental transformation. It gives raise to two important theoretical concepts, i. e. Quasi-Rents and the problem of Holdup. Both of these concepts affect the costs of arm’s-length market exchange and in turn affect the â€Å"Make or Buy† decision. Once a firm invests in a relationship-specific asset, it generates positive quasi-rent. The other party in the exchange may know this extra profit and will push for getting a share of it by holding up its trading partner. It can be done by renegotiating the terms of the exchange, or event breaching the contracts when they are incomplete. In view of the possible Holdup issue, the incentive for firms to invest in relationship-specific assets in the first place might be greatly reduced. Without the adequate supply of these assets, it might force the firm to make them by itself. Make Vs. Buy Cases Having the theoretical basis of the TEC theory described above, we can now see how the theory can be applied to the real life examples. The first example that I quote is the defect notebook batteries produced by Sony which resulted in recall in year 2006 and in 2008. In the personal computer (PC) manufacturing industry, most of the players, such as Lenovo, Hewlett-Packard, Toshiba and Dell, have been using the market and they buy most of the component parts required to make their desktops and notebooks instead of making them by themselves. One of the standard components of notebook is its battery. All of these PC firms buy their batteries from the market and one of the major battery suppliers is Sony. These PC firms made this â€Å"Buy† decision as they found Sony has attached economics of scale in producing notebook batteries which their in-house unit could not attain. Also notebook batteries are not relationship-specific assets and are not too difficult to coordinate in the production flows as it is a stand alone add-on that only required when the assembly of the notebook components is completed. So Timing and Sequence Fit are not a major coordination issue. In addition, leakage of private information is a non-issue as the raw materials of making battery cells are almost homogenous and relatively â€Å"low-tech† in the manufacturing process. Hence, these giant PC firms entered into contracts with Sony for the supply of their notebooks batteries. In year 2006, dozen of consumers worldwide reported Sony batteries were overheating and a few minor burns. The overheating batteries were shipped with Lenovo, HP, Toshiba and Dell notebooks. It resulted in a 9. 6 million notebook recall in year 2006. In this case, all PC firms were following the standard make vs. buy decision process and tried to reduce their production costs by using the market. However, all of them had underestimated the transaction costs related to the use of the market mechanism. With asymmetric information where Sony has more information that HP, Dell and other PC firms, it may subsequently use it opportunistically. The PC firms can reduce the problem by improving the quality control and contract terms of buying these batteries. However, it comes at a cost, transaction costs. While the compensations claims from these PC firms to Sony were not publicly disclosed, it certainly damaged the reputation of these PC firms and Sony. It also increased the costs of the contracts between them. While public expected this recall would not happen again, in year 2008, about 35,000 Sony notebook batteries were recalled in US after several reports of fire. Apparently, all parties involved had not taken into the transaction costs factor seriously enough given the 2006 recall. Vertical Integration I would like to illustrate the vertical integration strategy by referring to production of iPod by Apple Inc. While Apple Inc. claimed itself as a firm that designs and manufactures consumer electronics and computer software products, essentially it uses the market specialists as the coordination. It contracted out of all of its manufacturing functions and only kept the core design of its products in-house. Even its software was not entirely developed in-house. Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Inc. , ordered a team of hardware designers within the firm to design the hardware of iPod in year 2000. When Apple first launched iPod in the market on October, 2001, it used the software developed by a company called PortalPlayer. Apple also contracted another company, Pixo, to help on the user interface design and implementation. It is Apple Inc. hich continuously refined the look and feel of the software as the development progress. Regarding manufacturing, it was out-sourced to Taiwan companies with factories located in Mainland China. Component parts that made up of iPod are supplied by different suppliers, such as Samsung for microcontroller and storage medium and Cirrus Logic for audio chip. Interestingly, while Apple Inc. decided not to have forward integration for the manufacturing of iPod, it actively pursed the downstream integration by establishing its own distribution and retailing channel. It set up an online media store of iTunes Music Store on April 2003 and operates more than 250 retail stores in more than 9 countries. With the PC iTunes software that can access the iTunes Store and the special property right protection technology (Data Retention Management) that only allows iPod to play the contents (which include music, videos and games) purchased from the Store, the iPod, iTunes and on-line iTunes Store are well-coordinated in the downstream of the vertical chain. It also increased greatly the sales and profitability of Apple Inc.. Another case that I can refer to is my firm that I am currently working with. It is big law firm. When we decide whether we would outsource our supporting functions, such as data management and IT support, we always consider the chance of leakage of our private (client’s) information, which is critical to our profession. It will have negative legal and reputational consequence if our clients’ information is leaked to outsiders. As complete contracting is either infeasible or too costly, most of data management applications are developed in-house instead of buying from the market. Conclusion TEC is important as it represents one of the first and most influential attempts to develop an economic theory that look into the firm structure in a more serious manner. It is most often used to analyze vertical integration of firms. With the development of technologies and communications, transaction costs to use Market are reduced. However, the example of Sony batteries recall case shows that firms might underestimate these costs. While more firms are downsizing their structure and contracted out their functions, they strategically integrate to the functions which can enhance their overall profitability. The setting up of iTunes Stores and selling of proprietary contents by Apple Inc. for iPod is a good example. With possible leakage of private information and the failure to have complete contract, professional services firm is more likely to use the internal resources for its data and IT management.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

How to Style Titles of Compositions

How to Style Titles of Compositions How to Style Titles of Compositions How to Style Titles of Compositions By Mark Nichol Navigating the formatting rules about titles of compositions books and chapters, movies and TV shows, albums and songs, and the like can seem like negotiating a minefield. Here’s a handy map to help you maneuver through the terrain: In print, two primary formats exist for identifying a creative work. Titles of entire bodies of work such as a book, a TV series, or an album are often italicized, while titles for components of each book chapters, TV episodes, or songs are usually enclosed in quotation marks. Easy enough, but what about creations such as paintings and poems? A painting is a discrete work, but it is also often displayed as part of an exhibition. What do you do? In this case, italicize the painting’s title but style the title of the exhibition in roman, or ordinary, type. (However, single ancient works of art, such as the Venus de Milo, are simply styled in roman.) As for short poems collected in an anthology, style their titles like those of book chapters, but italicize the titles of book-length poems. Photographs are considered elements of a larger work, such as a book or an exhibition, and their titles are simply enclosed in quotation marks. And what about capitalization? Generally, in a title, always capitalize the first and last words regardless of part of speech, plus nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and long conjunctions (those other than and, but, for, nor, and or.) Lowercase prepositions (over, under, through, etc.) unless they are key to the title (A Walk Through Time) or as part of an adverbial or adjectival phrase (Turn Up the Volume). The initial definite or indefinite article in a title can be preempted by a nonitalicized article if it conflicts with the sentence structure. For example, write â€Å"The Wizard of Oz audio book is a best-seller.† But if this style looks awkward, just relax the sentence: â€Å"The audio-book version of The Wizard of Oz is a best-seller.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Synonyms for â€Å"Leader†Expanded and ExtendedStarting a Business Letter with Dear Mr.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Teenage-Mother essays

Teenage-Mother essays When I was fourteen years old, I worked at Winn-Dixie, a huge grocery store that was ten minutes walking distance from my house. One day, after-school I got ready to go to work. Of course, I did not drive, so I walked to work. Once I got there and opened my register, a young pregnant female that looked extremely frustrated by the child, who was rolling around in the cart with all the groceries came through my line. He was one obnoxious little two-year-old, throwing groceries on the conveyer belt and demanding candies. Meanwhile, the poor teenage-mother was fumbling through her purse searching for her WIC papers. It was such a sorry sight to watch because she looked so frustrated with the child and her inability to locate where her papers were. Having a child at a young age is a huge responsibility. Moreover, teenagers having babies can affect the mothers education forcing her to work lower paying jobs, can alter their lifestyle causing them miss out on the recreational activiti es, and cause financial burden for the mother. I was working as a part time cashier at Winn-Dixie and attending school. I did not intend to work there for the rest of my life. I believed that I would eventually graduate college and enter a well paying career. While on the other hand, this seventeen-year-old will remain uneducated because she already has a two-year old child and another on the way. However, I will have a career to focus on and will not have to work as many hours to support my family. That will mean more time towards taking care of my family by being home, rather then being at work for most of my childrens childhood. Because of the pregnancy, the teenage-mother will continue to be uneducated, work many hours and drift away from sharing a close bond with her children. Furthermore, teenagers should not have babies because their lifestyle would change dramatically. Her friends would probably stop coming around to go hang ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Principle Terrestrial Biomes Annotated Bibliography

Principle Terrestrial Biomes - Annotated Bibliography Example One of the strength of the motivating programs is that its’ automation makes it easier to identify individual merits and reward them accordingly. Compliments and other recognitions should be posted there to motivate them. Communication with employees from wherever they are makes them feel part of the company as they feel more appreciated and derive a sense of belongingness. This should continue being exploited at all times. Some weaknesses have also been noted in the discussion section. One of these entails shortcomings in communication. Employees should be made part of the decision-making team to ensure they feel obligated to work for a hospital. A hospital should also outsource some required services especially in recruitment programs to allow them cope with the challenges fostered by motivation programs. Abstract - The study recognizes that the concept of design has an effect on a patient's healing process. In the study, substantial evidence presents that the design of medi cal institutes influence the health outcomes of patients, as well as recruitment and retention of the hospital staff. In addition, the concept of design also affects the efficiency of how care is being provisioned. In United Kingdom, primary health and social care is being prioritized due to the ageing population of the country. Summary - The purpose of the study is to incorporate an environment that would deliver safety, efficiency and quality that is flexible to changing delivery patterns in the provision of care. ... This article focuses on the temperate grasslands, and examines and populations in them. It looks at a natural experiment occurring in a small region of Germany, where an area of grassland is persistently expanding by removing other obstacles to it such as human habitation. The exact dates that these obstacles were removed is well known, so know exactly how old the grasslands are, which is rare when studying ecological succession. They use this knowledge to examine the different species of ant which colonize the grassland once the grassland begins to grow. It uses simple sampling techniques to examine the populations of a wide variety of different types of ants at different stages of grasslands development, and the techniques used and data collected both seem extremely reliable. The research team found that in younger grasslands, there were a wide variety of different species that changed from individual patch of grassland to individual patch of grassland, because the initial populati ons were mostly dependent on the random chance of an individual or group from that species wandering into the grassland accidentally. They found, however, that as the grasslands matured and when studying older grasslands this initial diversity and wide range of species disappears, to be replaced with a more predictable group of species. This suggests that the initial distribution of species has no impact on the eventual one, and that a number of highly successful species of ants will consistently outperform other species in this kind of grassland. Gewin, Virginia. â€Å"Planting temperate forests won’t temper global warming† Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5.1 (2007): 6. This article details the effects that temperate rainforests might have on global warming. One of the

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Follow the instruction in the details, i will attach the article that Assignment

Follow the instruction in the details, i will attach the article that you are discussing - Assignment Example The reference chosen was: Doriott, C. (2000). Genetic Codes Unraveled: New Clues to Human History. Ancestry, 18(1), 15 – 21(Stix, 2008). The information presented in the article is very contradicting. The reason for this is because; the various biological concepts written on human ancestry discuss the process of evolution from a common ancestor. They do not mention any the point on â€Å"Mitochondrial Eve,† (Stix, 2008). This article increased knowledge about DNA in the mentioning of genetic prospecting which involves researching deeper into the human DNA to find more about their origin. The processes involved including gene slicing. It also aided in understanding of single neucliotide polymorphsisms. The article stated that they help in evaluating the identities of individual populations (Stix, 2008). The most interesting thing in the article was on the dueling theories that states humans migrated from Africa 50 to 60,000 years ago. This beats the understanding of civilization, the age of the universe and theories that try to explain the origin of man, such as that of evolution by Charles Darwin (Stix,

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Corporate Finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Corporate Finance - Essay Example TSR is defined as a measure that helps in evaluating the performance of different company’s shares and stocks over the passage of time. It takes into account appreciation of share price and payment of dividends in order to show the total shareholder’s return and is expressed as percentage. It is calculated after considering capital gain, which is accrued after purchase of company’s share. In calculating TSR, it is assumed that the dividends are reinvested in the company shares (Rexam Plc, 2014b). Through calculation of TSR, the performance of share is compared over the period of time. This is the main advantage of calculating TSR as it shows the exact position of the share even if it has high growth and low dividend or low growth and high dividend. After collecting relevant information from the annual reports of the two companies mentioned above, TSR is calculated. The information needed for the same are share price at the end and beginning of the year along with the dividend that are paid out to the shareholders. This information has helped to calculate the TSR of the companies, which are provided in the following table (Rexam Plc, 2014a): The above table reflects the change or fluctuation in the value of TSR over the 7 years. It is observed that the TSR value of Rexam Plc has increased over the years from a negative value since 2007. During the period 2007-2009, the company was unable to maintain a positive TSR mainly due to its poor performance in the industry, which occurred mainly due to the insufficient sales. However, positive TSR after 2009 indicates that the company has improved its share price performance, which is the result of increase in sales. Presently, the company has satisfied customers by offering them with good return and higher dividends, which are reinvested in company shares that are issued for them. From the above table it is evident that GSK has encountered

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Kennedy vs. Nixon Essay Example for Free

Kennedy vs. Nixon Essay â€Å"Peace,† the overall message is about experience and knowing what to do during though times. Nixons campaign tried to convey this seriousness by shooting its commercials of Nixon perched on a desk and speaking directly to the camera. In JFK’s 1960 â€Å"Debate,† political ad, he addresses the people in a snappier way, and by â€Å"facing the issues squarely. † However, neither of the candidates ads was about issues; rather, they were more contrast in styles. The messages focused on the era as a dangerous time; it was really an election about change versus experience. In Kennedy’s ad, he expresses his ideas directly, specifically, and offers â€Å"new American leadership for the country. † His tone is very magnetic and appealing, and it is quite pleasing to an American to hear that Kennedy thinks that America is a great country, but â€Å"it could be a greater† one. Whereas Nixon speaks with such composure and a serious-minded tone in his ad, it almost seems he is not excited (or even cares) to be there. The way Kennedy carries himself while giving speeches is an especially confident, poised, and self-assured one, so much that he even comments on whether if people think that America was doing everything satisfactorily, that he agreed with them, that they â€Å"should vote for Nixon†! Furthermore, on the Kennedy-Nixon debate, Kennedy appeared looking â€Å"tanned, confident, and vigorous,† while Nixon was â€Å"wearing no make up and a light-colored suit that blended into the background looking exhausted and pale, and sweated profusely. Also, Mr. Nixon’s tone is exceedingly formal, thus making him look a tad bit uncharismatic, (unlike his likable contender). His way of speaking directly to the camera and giving detailed answers to an offscreen speaker, presented him â€Å"as a though, experienced leader able to stand up to the Communists. † In general, while Nixon was not as charismatic and pleasant as JFK, he was a seasoned, experienced, and mature leader ready to stand up to Khrushchev. Moreover, Nixon kept arguing that while Khrushchev was a â€Å"cold, hard, ruthless man,† that we won’t â€Å"be coerced, that we will not tolerate being pushed around,† that he’d continue to â€Å"deal with Communism and the Soviet leaders†¦firmly, and always with vigilance. † In contrast, Kennedy attempted to turn his youth into an advantage, proclaiming in his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, â€Å"We stand today on the edge of a new frontier. †

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Death Penalty as a Punishment: The Debate

Death Penalty as a Punishment: The Debate The main aim of this research project is to evaluate the efficacy of death penalty as a punishment. The researcher has tried her best to do an objective study on the topic, without any subjectivity or personal biases or prejudices. Since this is a sensitive topic and different schools of thought have different opinion about capital punishment, the researcher has tried to analyse and understand the pros and cons of such an extreme form of punishment. Jurisprudential and sociological aspects of such kind of punishment have also been looked into. Scope and Limitations The scope of this project ranges from a positive analysis of the sources available regarding the topic, to a comparison to its antecedent, and conclude with a normative analysis. The limitation that might be evident would be the limited understanding of the author as to the technical details encountered while dealing with the topic and the limited availability of sources. Due to paucity of time and sources of information, the researcher has been able to present a brief but comprehensive analysis of the topic and procedural law involved, while acknowledging the fact that a further in depth analysis would provide greater understanding, clarity and knowledge about the applicability and working of this area of law. Since the topic concerns the society as well, the sociological implications have also been highlighted. Sources of Data Primarily the researcher has relied on books available in the AMITY Law School library. The researcher has also tried to utilise the resources, articles, e-books available on the internet. Chapter I: Introduction Capital punishment is the harshest of punishments provided in the Indian Penal Code, which involves the judicial killing or taking the life of the accused as a form of punishment. The question of whether the state has the right to take the life of a person, howsoever gruesome the offence he may have committed, has always been a contested issue between moralists who feel that the death sentence is required as a deterrent measure, and the progressive who argue the judicial taking of life is nothing else but court mandated murder.  [1]   It is clear that capital punishment is awarded only in two categories of offences, namely treason and murder. However, the judges, in the offences punishable with sentence of death and alternatively with life imprisonment have to make critical choice between the two permissible punitive alternatives, viz , death sentence and imprisonment for life. When the conviction is for an offence punishable with death or, in the alternative, with imprisonment for a term of years , the judgment shall state the reasons for the sentence awarded, and, in the case of sentence of death, the special reasons for such sentence. 1.1 Constitutional validity of death penalty The constitutional validity of death penalty was considered by a Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court in Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab  [2]  . The reference to the Constitutional Bench came about, as the Bench hearing the case noticed that there was a conflict between two rulings of the Supreme Court on the issue of the validity and scope of the provision that imposed death penalty. The two cases were the rulings in Jagmohan v. State of Uttar Pradesh  [3], which declared death penalty to be constitutionally valid, and the ruling of another three-member bench in Rajendra Prasad v State of Uttar Pradesh  [4]  , in which a majority of two judges, ruled that when the trial court comes to a conclusion that the accused is guilty of murder, then the state through the prosecutor should be called upon by the court to state whether the extreme penalty is called for ; and if the answer is in the positive, the court shall upon the prosecutor to establish , if necessary by leadin g evidence, facts for seeking the extreme penalty of law. The majority ruling went on to state the principle guiding the imposition of death sentence as follows: It is, therefore, imperative to voice the concern that courts, aided by the broad illustrative guidelines indicated by us, will discharge the onerous function with even more scrupulous care and humane concern, directed along the highroads of legislative policy outlined in section 354(3) viz, that for persons convicted of murder, life imprisonment is the rule and death sentence an exception. A real and abiding concern for the dignity of human life postulates resistance to taking a life through laws instrumentality. That ought not to be done save in the rarest of rare cases when the alternative option is unquestionably foreclosed.  [5]   Bhagwati J delivered the minority ruling, holding that s 302, in so far as it provides for death penalty as an alternative to life sentence, is unconstitutional and ultra vires, and violative of articles14 and 21 of the constitution. His opinion, however, was delivered after nearly two years.  [6]   1.2 Medias influence The influence of media coverage in brining the death penalty is especially strong. The feedback loop is especially visible at the legislative juncture, when crime control policies are made at the prosecutorial juncture, when discretion about capital charging is at work; and at the adjudicative juncture, when both judge and jury must make difficult decision about sentencing.  [7]   Mass Media has got great capability to influence any judgment that comes into scene. The infamous case of death penalty execution of Dhananjoy Chatterjees  [8]  was, perhaps, the first televised execution in the history of Indian media. Chatterjee, who was sentenced to death in 1991, for raping and murdering a schoolgirl, Hetal Parekh, was finally hanged on August 14, 2004 after the  Supreme Court denied his mercy petition. Through these past 14 years, he served a term in Alipur Jail in Kolkata. The case would have otherwise gone down in history as another Supreme Court ruling, but for the hue and cry raised by the various segments of the media and the civil society. As a result, what should have been an understated, unpublicized execution became the most talked about verdict in the judicial history of the worlds largest democracy. The arguments pitted against and in favor of the sentence were equally appalling. There were the human rights activists who strongly condemned the sentence on the grounds of mercy, claiming that since the accused had already served a life imprisonment term, executing him amounted to injustice. Supporting such groups was a section of the media, which, quite literally participated in the killing of the accused. Twenty-four hour television news channels brought alive the anguish of the accused by streaming live visuals of the accused, his movements and actions, until he was led to the gallows. Those private last moments, which an accused is entitled to, were thrown open to public scrutiny. Senior journalist Vir Singhvi wrote in the Aug. 29 issue of the Hindustan Times Daily (centrist)- Many people I know who were supporters of the death penalty suddenly began to have second thoughts as the drama unfolded on the TV channels. They felt as though they themselves were participating in killing a poor man. It was a guilt that many felt they could do without. It was horrendous to watch people deriving a sadistic pleasure and making a spectacle out of a death sentence. All this, combined with the depiction of the familys trauma, generated a wave of sympathy among the masses, hence creating a pseudo-celebrity out of Chatterjee.  [9]   In another case of execution of accused Santosh Singh in the case of Priyadarshini Matto, none of us really know if the accused is actually guilty or not, but the trial by media as already pronounced him guilty of the offence, and hence when the judgment was finally given by the court of law, all the people celebrated. Right after the incident, the media trial begins and all media entities- print or electronic- more or less have similar focus in their stories. Worse, they even pronounce their judgment, which usually goes against the accused or the suspect.   With almost a propaganda-like zeal, the story is presented to the viewers as if the accused is really the culprit. In cases where the charge is not proved in the court, there are SMS campaigns, blogging outrages, candle-lit processions, and rallies to mobilize the citizens against the injustice done by the courts and to put the pressure on the appellate court.  [10]   Therefore to put it, Law and media coexist and overlap in the modern society. People create their opinion, drop their conclusions guided by the information they get from mass media and very seldom think about the credibility of this information. In modern society, the impact of mass media is so big that it not only passes the legal norms to the population, but also has the power to influence or even change them. Receiving publicity can become a serious problem for death eligible cases as from the role of observer mass media becomes an active participant of the trial. If death penalty is appointed, the media doesnt leave any chance to the charged person and the appellate procedure is usually illuminated as an annoying delay on the way to the climax execution. These questions can raise unnecessary doubts in the minds of people and spoil dramatic effect, so diligently created. Another peculiar feature of mass medias covering the death issue is the lack of defensive evidence, if any pre sented to the wide audience. The main line of narration is usually lead from the part of prosecution they have more TV air and spaces in the magazines and newspapers. Defense doesnt have these privileges. Very seldom journalists try to show compassion to criminals. Another interesting feature is that mass media tries to avoid the direct formulations, when talking about the death itself, trying to use phrases like came to meet death, went to his final journey, etc. They are usually afraid to minimize the sufferings of the victim, by showing any humanity to putative criminal. To be just, there are rare cases, when the topic innocent person unfairly condemned is speculated, but these cases are rare and cannot be regarded as general tendency. The role of denunciator conflicts with medias role of impartial chronicles. Complicated or ambiguous cases are not so popular among the media, as they need context, complex explanations and event chains and let multi-faceted interpretations. Media becomes a transitional point, which passes emotion from the courtroom to average observer. We get a loop here trying to answer the needs of the audience, mass media tries to search for the facts, which wou ld appeal most of all to this public. At the same time, collecting such facts, media influences public opinion. The main difficulty lies in the fact, that media prefers a selective depiction of events and the selective emotional background for their coverage. Feelings of compassion, mercy and sorrow to victims arent accompanied by even the smallest effort to display compassion to the convicted person. The crime and criminal himself become the incarnation of encroachment on the social legislative norms and stability. Chapter II: Case Laws Relating To Capital Punishment Execution In India 2.1 Dhananjoy Chatterjee alias Dhana v. State of West Bengal.  [11]   The measure of punishment in a given case must depend upon the atrocity of the crime; the conduct of the criminal and the defenceless state of the victim. Justice demands that the courts should impose punishment befitting the crime so that the courts reflect public abhorrence of the crime. The courts must not only keep in view the rights of the criminal but also the rights of victim of crime and the society at large while considering imposition of appropriate punishment  [12]   2.2 Sushil Murmu v. State of Jharkhand  [13]. In this case, the S.C. was called upon to adjudge the proprietary of death sentence for sacrificing a nine year old child in the most brutal manner. The child was killed in a grotesque and revolting manner. The court declared that the case at hand falls in rarest of rare category of cases. It, therefore, upheld the death sentence awarded to the convict. 2.3 State of Maharashtra v. Ajmal Aamir Kasab. In this case quarters of media have tremendously supported the execution of Kasab and there are others who vehemently oppose the execution. The points against the execution are Capital punishment is a barbaric remnant of an uncivilized society. It is immoral in principle, and unfair and discriminatory in practice. The judgment is still pending before the H.C. 2.4 Jai Kumar v State of Madhya Pradesh  [14]   In this case the accused Jai Kumar was sentenced to death by the trial court for having killed his sister-in-law, who was pregnant, and her eight-year old daughter in the night of 7 January 1997, allegedly for the reason that he had become enraged because his sister-in-law had not given him enough food. However, his own mother tendered evidence that he had made an attempt to rape the deceased sister-in-law, and encountering resistance from her, committed the crime. The manner in which he committed the offence was gruesome. He locked his mother inside a room, and thereafter went into the room of the deceased by removing the bricks near the door, going into the room and killing her. After that he decapitated her head and hung it from a tree in a jungle nearby. He had also taken the eight-year old daughter of the deceased and killed her with an axe saying that he was offering her as a sacrifice to Mahuva Maharaj and thereafter buried her in sand, covered with stones. The Supreme Court n oted that the mitigating factors were hardly sufficient to balance out the aggravating circumstances. In the present case, the savage nature of the crime has shocked our judicial conscience. The murder was cold-blooded and brutal without any provocation. It certainly makes it a rarest of rare case in which there are no mitigating or extenuating circumstances.  [15]   2.5 Suresh Chandra Bahri v State of Bihar  [16]   In this case, the accused was alleged to have conspired with several others to kill one Suresh Bahris wife and two young children. The main grouse that Suresh Bahri had against his wife was that she was interfering in his property dealings and wanted to sell their Ranchi house so that they could migrate to America with the sale proceeds and settle there with the children. The main accused enticed her to come to Ranchi from Delhi on the pretext that a sale deed for selling the house was to be executed on 11th October, 1983, and killed her on the night of the 10 October itself. The evidence disclosed that the murder was committed in an extremely brutal, diabolical, gruesome manner. Her body was then cut into two and disposed. Similarly, the two children were taken to a farm house after telling them that they were going for a pleasure trip, and killed there. Their bodies were cut into pieces and thrown into Varuna River. Considering the fact that it was the father himself who had commit ted such gruesome murder, the Supreme Court confirmed the death sentence as the matter came into the rarest of rare categories. 2.6 Jagdish v. State of Madhya Pradesh In Jagdish v. State of Madhya Pradesh,  [17]  the apex court quoted the US Supreme Court and was of the view that, the cruelty of capital punishment lies not only in the execution itself and the pain incident thereto, but also in the dehumanizing effects of the lengthy imprisonment prior to execution and that the prospect of pending execution exacts a frightful toll during the inevitable long wait between the imposition of sentence and the actual infliction of death.  [18]   The Supreme Court quoted a few decided cases in this case as well.   In T.V.Vatheeswaran v. State of Tamil Nadu  [19]  and  Ediga Anamma v. State of Andhra Pradesh  [20]  it has been held that a delay of two years was permissible beyond which the sentence ought to be converted to life. In Bhagwan Bux Singh. v. The State of U.P.  [21]  similar observations were made with respect to a delay of two and a half years and in Sadhu Singh v. State of U.P.  [22]  to a delay of three and a half years.   2.7 Vivian Rodrick v. The State of West Bengal In Vivian Rodrick v. The State of West Bengal,  [23]  the Supreme Court said that, It seems to us that the extremely excessive delay in the disposal of the case of the appellant would by itself be sufficient for imposing a lesser sentence of imprisonment for life under Section 302. Section 302, IPC prescribes two alternate sentences, namely, death sentence or imprisonment for life, and when there has been inordinate delay in the disposal of the appeal by the High Court it seems to us that it is a relevant factor for the High Court to take into consideration for imposing the lesser sentence. In this particular case, as pointed out above, the appellant was committed to trial by the Presidency Magistrate as early as July 31, 1963, and he was convicted by the Trial Judge on September 4, 1964. It is now January 1971, and the appellant has been for more than six years under the fear of sentence of death. This must have caused him unimaginable mental agony. In our opinion, it would be inhuman to make him suffer till the Government decides the matter on a mercy petition. W e consider that this now a fit case for awarding the sentence of imprisonment for life. Accordingly, we accept the appeal, set aside the order of the High Court awarding death sentence and award a sentence of imprisonment for life. The sentences under Section 148, IPC and Section 5 of the Explosive Substances Act   Chapter III: Jurisprudential and Sociological Aspects 3.1 Jurisprudential Aspects Everyone has an inalienable human right to life, even those who commit murder; sentencing a person to death and executing them violates that right. This is very similar to the value of life argument, but approached from the perspective of human rights. The counter-argument is that a person can, by their actions, forfeit human rights, and that murderers forfeit their right to life. Another example will make this clear a person forfeits their right to life if they start a murderous attack and the only way the victim can save their own life is by killing the attacker. The medieval philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas made this point very clearly: Therefore if any man is dangerous to the community and is subverting it by some sin, the treatment to be commended is his execution in order to preserve the common good Therefore to kill a man who retains his natural worthiness is intrinsically evil, although it may be justifiable to kill a sinner just as it is to kill a beast, for, as Aristotle points out, an evil man is worse than a beast and more harmful.  [24]   Aquinas is saying that certain contexts change a bad act (killing) into a good act (killing to repair the violation of justice done by the person killed, and killing a person who has forfeited their natural worthiness by killing). The most common and most cogent argument against capital punishment is that sooner or later, innocent people will get killed, because of mistakes or flaws in the justice system. Witnesses, (where they are part of the process), prosecutors and jurors can all make mistakes. When this is coupled with flaws in the system it is inevitable that innocent people will be convicted of crimes. Where capital punishment is used such mistakes cannot be put right. There is ample evidence that such mistakes are possible in the USA, 116 people sentenced to death have been found innocent since 1973 and released from death row. The average time on death row before these exonerations was 9 years. Things were made worse in the USA when the Supreme Court refused to hold explicitly that the execution of a defendant in the face of significant evidence of innocence would be unconstitutional. However many US lawyers believe that in practice the court would not permit an execution in a case demonstrating persuasive evidence of actual innocence. 3.2 Sociological Aspects If we look from a sociologist perspective, it is an accepted notion that, the criminal should be punished less, but punished better. Killing him would be a very extreme form of punishment and would not serve any ends. It is neither beneficial to the society nor to the criminal. Michel Foucault, a well known sociologist, says that the criminals must be Disciplined and Punished (D and P). According to him, D and P is a study of the development of the gentler modern way of imprisoning criminals rather than torturing or killing them.  [25]  He pointed to the shift, which took place at the turn of the 18th century, from punishment as the public infliction of pain to punishment as incarceration. While recognizing the element of genuinely enlightened reform, he particularly emphasizes how such reform also becomes a vehicle of more effective control: to punish less, perhaps; but certainly to punish better.  [26]   The Supreme Court in the case of Jagdish v. State of Madhya Pradesh,  [27]  relied on a sociologists opinion. The court quoted Robert Johnson, Death row is barren and uninviting. The death row inmate must contend with a segregated environment marked by immobility, reduced stimulation, and the prospect of harassment by staff. There is also the risk that visits from loved ones will become increasingly rate, for the man who is civilly dead is often abandoned by the living. The condemned prisoners ordeal is usually a lonely one and must be met largely through his own resources. The uncertainties of his case pending appeals, unanswered bids for commutation, possible changes in the law may aggravate adjustment problems. A continuing and pressing concern is whether one will join the substantial minority who obtain a reprieve or will be counted among the to-be-dead. Uncertainty may make the dilemma of the death row inmate more complicated than simply choosing between maintaining hope or surrendering to despair. The condemned can afford neither alternative, but must nurture both a desire to life and an acceptance of imminent death . As revealed in the suffering of terminally ill patients, this is an extremely difficult task, one in which resources afforded by family or those within the institutional context may prove critical to the personss adjustment. The death row inmate must achieve equilibrium with few coping supports. In the process, he must somehow maintain his dignity and integrity. Death row is a prison within a prison, physically and socially isolated from the prison community and the outside world. Condemned prisoners life twenty-three and one-half hours alone in their cells..  [28]   Penologists and medical experts agreed that the process of carrying out a verdict of death is often as degrading and brutalizing to the human spirit as to constitute psychological torture. Relying on Coleman vs. Balkcom,  [29]  observed that the deterrent value of incarceration during that period of uncertainty may well be comparable to the consequences of the ultimate step itself and when the death penalty ceases realistically to further these purposes,..its imposition would then be the pointless and needless extinction of life with only marginal contributions to any discernible social or public purposes. A penalty with such negligible returns to the State would be patently excessive and cruel and unusual punishment violative of the Eighth Amendment. The Courts have, however, drawn a distinction whereby the accused himself has been responsible for the delay by misuse of the judicial process but the time taken by the accused in pursuing legal and constitutional remedies cannot be taken against him.   Chapter IV: Death Penalty Statutes The Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) which was first enacted in 1985 and reenacted in 1987 provides for death penalty as an alternative punishment for the commission of a terrorist act.  [30]  Despite the non-renewal of TADA by the parliament after 1995, resulting in its lapse  [31]  , a large number of trials under TADA still await completion. A death sentence recommended in the first instance by the designated court trying the case under TADA becomes final when confirmed at the next level by the Supreme Court, there being no appeal against such confirmation of sentence.  [32]   The Indian Penal Code prescribes death penalty as an alternative punishment to life imprisonment for eleven kinds of offences, the recent one being introduced by an amendment in 1993.  [33]   Section 3(2) (i) of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is another provision, which prescribes a mandatory death sentence. It states that : if an innocent member of a Scheduled Caste or of Scheduled Tribe be convicted and executed in consequence of such false or fabricated evidence, the person who gives or fabricates such evidence shall be punished with death.  [34]   The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987 provides for death penalty among the punishments that maybe imposed on any person who abets, directly or indirectly, the commission of sati. The National Security Guards Act, 1986, and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police Act, 1992 both prescribe the death sentence as an alternative punishment for defined offences committed by members of the two armed forces. The Abortive attempts by Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh to enact special laws to deal with terrorism, both providing for death penalty, are pointers to the popular belief that retribution and deterrence are desired goals of punishment. This also explains the demand by the Home Minister, in which he is stated to have the support of many state governments, that death penalty be prescribed as a punishment for rape.  [35]   The baying for blood as a shrill cry of retribution is not a new phenomena. It was not too far in the past that the Rajasthan High Court ordered the public hanging of a mother-in-law whom it found guilty of causing a dowry death.  [36]   In Mahesh v. Madhya Pradesh  [37]  , which was a case of multiple murders committed in a brutal manner, the court said : itll be a mockery of justice to permit these appellants to escape the extreme penalty of law when faced with such evidence and such cruel acts. To give the lesser punishment would be to render the justice system of this country suspect. The common man will lose faith in courts. In such cases he understands and appreciates the language of deterrence more than the reformative jargon. Chapter V: Capital Punishment, Execution Publicity Punishment is not inflicted by a rational man for the sake of the crime that has been committed; after all one cannot undo what is past, but for the sake of the future, to prevent either the same man or, by the spectacle of his punishment, someone else, from doing wrong again. Healthy debate persists as to the deterrent effect of capital punishment. Although an expansive and diverse body of research has accumulated that examines the effect of executions or execution publicity on murder rates, this research affords few definitive conclusions. On one hand, there is evidence that executions reduce murder levels. On the other hand, several studies fail to discern convincing evidence of a relationship. Still others find a positive association. These inconsistencies in the literature raise methodological issues, some of which are grounded in theoretical arguments. Perhaps the most serious concern is specifying the true nature of the causal relationship between capital punishment and murder rates. Most previous studies estimated only unidirectional relationships. The question of salience, however, is whether recursive models portray the relations among the variables of interest accurately. Another issue relates to the geographical unit of analysis best suited for evincing deterrence effects. Whereas most prior studies relied on state or national level data to assess the deterrent effect of capital punishment, a high level of aggregation may not fully capture the ecological dynamics that are hypothesized to underlie deterrence theory.  [38]   With the emergence of the media as a powerful source of information and education, its role in the dispensation of justice has also become significant. The judiciary and media have rather become partners in dispensation of justice as media enjoys the privilege to investigate crimes and to act as a catalyst in the dispensation of justice. Media and Justice are now synonymous; because the medias endeavour to unearth and focus on crime is primarily motivated by its cherished desire to project truth and seek justice. Media , truth, justice , are thus, inter-related.  [39]   5.1 Arguments FOR and AGAINST capital punishment, as presented by execution publicity. Capital punishment permanently removes around the worst criminals from society and should prove much safer for the rest of us than long term or permanent incarceration. It is self evident that dead criminals cannot commit any further crimes, either within prison or after escaping or after being released from it. Execution is a very real punishment rather than some form of rehabilitative treatment, the criminal is made to suffer in proportion to the offence. Although whether there is a place in a modern society for the old fashioned principal of lex talens (an eye for an eye), is a matter of personal opinion. Retribution is seen by many as an acceptable reason for the death penalty according to my survey results. It is hard to prove one way or the other because in most retentionist countries the number of people actually executed per year (as compared to those sentenced to death) is usually a very small proportion.   It would, however, seem that in those countries (e.g. Singapore) w hich almost always carry out death sentences, there is far less serious crime. This tends to indicate that the death penalty is a deterrent, but only where execution is a virtual certainty.   The death penalty is much more likely to be a deterrent where the crime requires planning and the potential criminal has time to think about the