Thursday, October 31, 2019

Corporate Finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Corporate Finance - Essay Example TSR is defined as a measure that helps in evaluating the performance of different company’s shares and stocks over the passage of time. It takes into account appreciation of share price and payment of dividends in order to show the total shareholder’s return and is expressed as percentage. It is calculated after considering capital gain, which is accrued after purchase of company’s share. In calculating TSR, it is assumed that the dividends are reinvested in the company shares (Rexam Plc, 2014b). Through calculation of TSR, the performance of share is compared over the period of time. This is the main advantage of calculating TSR as it shows the exact position of the share even if it has high growth and low dividend or low growth and high dividend. After collecting relevant information from the annual reports of the two companies mentioned above, TSR is calculated. The information needed for the same are share price at the end and beginning of the year along with the dividend that are paid out to the shareholders. This information has helped to calculate the TSR of the companies, which are provided in the following table (Rexam Plc, 2014a): The above table reflects the change or fluctuation in the value of TSR over the 7 years. It is observed that the TSR value of Rexam Plc has increased over the years from a negative value since 2007. During the period 2007-2009, the company was unable to maintain a positive TSR mainly due to its poor performance in the industry, which occurred mainly due to the insufficient sales. However, positive TSR after 2009 indicates that the company has improved its share price performance, which is the result of increase in sales. Presently, the company has satisfied customers by offering them with good return and higher dividends, which are reinvested in company shares that are issued for them. From the above table it is evident that GSK has encountered

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Kennedy vs. Nixon Essay Example for Free

Kennedy vs. Nixon Essay â€Å"Peace,† the overall message is about experience and knowing what to do during though times. Nixons campaign tried to convey this seriousness by shooting its commercials of Nixon perched on a desk and speaking directly to the camera. In JFK’s 1960 â€Å"Debate,† political ad, he addresses the people in a snappier way, and by â€Å"facing the issues squarely. † However, neither of the candidates ads was about issues; rather, they were more contrast in styles. The messages focused on the era as a dangerous time; it was really an election about change versus experience. In Kennedy’s ad, he expresses his ideas directly, specifically, and offers â€Å"new American leadership for the country. † His tone is very magnetic and appealing, and it is quite pleasing to an American to hear that Kennedy thinks that America is a great country, but â€Å"it could be a greater† one. Whereas Nixon speaks with such composure and a serious-minded tone in his ad, it almost seems he is not excited (or even cares) to be there. The way Kennedy carries himself while giving speeches is an especially confident, poised, and self-assured one, so much that he even comments on whether if people think that America was doing everything satisfactorily, that he agreed with them, that they â€Å"should vote for Nixon†! Furthermore, on the Kennedy-Nixon debate, Kennedy appeared looking â€Å"tanned, confident, and vigorous,† while Nixon was â€Å"wearing no make up and a light-colored suit that blended into the background looking exhausted and pale, and sweated profusely. Also, Mr. Nixon’s tone is exceedingly formal, thus making him look a tad bit uncharismatic, (unlike his likable contender). His way of speaking directly to the camera and giving detailed answers to an offscreen speaker, presented him â€Å"as a though, experienced leader able to stand up to the Communists. † In general, while Nixon was not as charismatic and pleasant as JFK, he was a seasoned, experienced, and mature leader ready to stand up to Khrushchev. Moreover, Nixon kept arguing that while Khrushchev was a â€Å"cold, hard, ruthless man,† that we won’t â€Å"be coerced, that we will not tolerate being pushed around,† that he’d continue to â€Å"deal with Communism and the Soviet leaders†¦firmly, and always with vigilance. † In contrast, Kennedy attempted to turn his youth into an advantage, proclaiming in his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, â€Å"We stand today on the edge of a new frontier. †

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Death Penalty as a Punishment: The Debate

Death Penalty as a Punishment: The Debate The main aim of this research project is to evaluate the efficacy of death penalty as a punishment. The researcher has tried her best to do an objective study on the topic, without any subjectivity or personal biases or prejudices. Since this is a sensitive topic and different schools of thought have different opinion about capital punishment, the researcher has tried to analyse and understand the pros and cons of such an extreme form of punishment. Jurisprudential and sociological aspects of such kind of punishment have also been looked into. Scope and Limitations The scope of this project ranges from a positive analysis of the sources available regarding the topic, to a comparison to its antecedent, and conclude with a normative analysis. The limitation that might be evident would be the limited understanding of the author as to the technical details encountered while dealing with the topic and the limited availability of sources. Due to paucity of time and sources of information, the researcher has been able to present a brief but comprehensive analysis of the topic and procedural law involved, while acknowledging the fact that a further in depth analysis would provide greater understanding, clarity and knowledge about the applicability and working of this area of law. Since the topic concerns the society as well, the sociological implications have also been highlighted. Sources of Data Primarily the researcher has relied on books available in the AMITY Law School library. The researcher has also tried to utilise the resources, articles, e-books available on the internet. Chapter I: Introduction Capital punishment is the harshest of punishments provided in the Indian Penal Code, which involves the judicial killing or taking the life of the accused as a form of punishment. The question of whether the state has the right to take the life of a person, howsoever gruesome the offence he may have committed, has always been a contested issue between moralists who feel that the death sentence is required as a deterrent measure, and the progressive who argue the judicial taking of life is nothing else but court mandated murder.  [1]   It is clear that capital punishment is awarded only in two categories of offences, namely treason and murder. However, the judges, in the offences punishable with sentence of death and alternatively with life imprisonment have to make critical choice between the two permissible punitive alternatives, viz , death sentence and imprisonment for life. When the conviction is for an offence punishable with death or, in the alternative, with imprisonment for a term of years , the judgment shall state the reasons for the sentence awarded, and, in the case of sentence of death, the special reasons for such sentence. 1.1 Constitutional validity of death penalty The constitutional validity of death penalty was considered by a Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court in Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab  [2]  . The reference to the Constitutional Bench came about, as the Bench hearing the case noticed that there was a conflict between two rulings of the Supreme Court on the issue of the validity and scope of the provision that imposed death penalty. The two cases were the rulings in Jagmohan v. State of Uttar Pradesh  [3], which declared death penalty to be constitutionally valid, and the ruling of another three-member bench in Rajendra Prasad v State of Uttar Pradesh  [4]  , in which a majority of two judges, ruled that when the trial court comes to a conclusion that the accused is guilty of murder, then the state through the prosecutor should be called upon by the court to state whether the extreme penalty is called for ; and if the answer is in the positive, the court shall upon the prosecutor to establish , if necessary by leadin g evidence, facts for seeking the extreme penalty of law. The majority ruling went on to state the principle guiding the imposition of death sentence as follows: It is, therefore, imperative to voice the concern that courts, aided by the broad illustrative guidelines indicated by us, will discharge the onerous function with even more scrupulous care and humane concern, directed along the highroads of legislative policy outlined in section 354(3) viz, that for persons convicted of murder, life imprisonment is the rule and death sentence an exception. A real and abiding concern for the dignity of human life postulates resistance to taking a life through laws instrumentality. That ought not to be done save in the rarest of rare cases when the alternative option is unquestionably foreclosed.  [5]   Bhagwati J delivered the minority ruling, holding that s 302, in so far as it provides for death penalty as an alternative to life sentence, is unconstitutional and ultra vires, and violative of articles14 and 21 of the constitution. His opinion, however, was delivered after nearly two years.  [6]   1.2 Medias influence The influence of media coverage in brining the death penalty is especially strong. The feedback loop is especially visible at the legislative juncture, when crime control policies are made at the prosecutorial juncture, when discretion about capital charging is at work; and at the adjudicative juncture, when both judge and jury must make difficult decision about sentencing.  [7]   Mass Media has got great capability to influence any judgment that comes into scene. The infamous case of death penalty execution of Dhananjoy Chatterjees  [8]  was, perhaps, the first televised execution in the history of Indian media. Chatterjee, who was sentenced to death in 1991, for raping and murdering a schoolgirl, Hetal Parekh, was finally hanged on August 14, 2004 after the  Supreme Court denied his mercy petition. Through these past 14 years, he served a term in Alipur Jail in Kolkata. The case would have otherwise gone down in history as another Supreme Court ruling, but for the hue and cry raised by the various segments of the media and the civil society. As a result, what should have been an understated, unpublicized execution became the most talked about verdict in the judicial history of the worlds largest democracy. The arguments pitted against and in favor of the sentence were equally appalling. There were the human rights activists who strongly condemned the sentence on the grounds of mercy, claiming that since the accused had already served a life imprisonment term, executing him amounted to injustice. Supporting such groups was a section of the media, which, quite literally participated in the killing of the accused. Twenty-four hour television news channels brought alive the anguish of the accused by streaming live visuals of the accused, his movements and actions, until he was led to the gallows. Those private last moments, which an accused is entitled to, were thrown open to public scrutiny. Senior journalist Vir Singhvi wrote in the Aug. 29 issue of the Hindustan Times Daily (centrist)- Many people I know who were supporters of the death penalty suddenly began to have second thoughts as the drama unfolded on the TV channels. They felt as though they themselves were participating in killing a poor man. It was a guilt that many felt they could do without. It was horrendous to watch people deriving a sadistic pleasure and making a spectacle out of a death sentence. All this, combined with the depiction of the familys trauma, generated a wave of sympathy among the masses, hence creating a pseudo-celebrity out of Chatterjee.  [9]   In another case of execution of accused Santosh Singh in the case of Priyadarshini Matto, none of us really know if the accused is actually guilty or not, but the trial by media as already pronounced him guilty of the offence, and hence when the judgment was finally given by the court of law, all the people celebrated. Right after the incident, the media trial begins and all media entities- print or electronic- more or less have similar focus in their stories. Worse, they even pronounce their judgment, which usually goes against the accused or the suspect.   With almost a propaganda-like zeal, the story is presented to the viewers as if the accused is really the culprit. In cases where the charge is not proved in the court, there are SMS campaigns, blogging outrages, candle-lit processions, and rallies to mobilize the citizens against the injustice done by the courts and to put the pressure on the appellate court.  [10]   Therefore to put it, Law and media coexist and overlap in the modern society. People create their opinion, drop their conclusions guided by the information they get from mass media and very seldom think about the credibility of this information. In modern society, the impact of mass media is so big that it not only passes the legal norms to the population, but also has the power to influence or even change them. Receiving publicity can become a serious problem for death eligible cases as from the role of observer mass media becomes an active participant of the trial. If death penalty is appointed, the media doesnt leave any chance to the charged person and the appellate procedure is usually illuminated as an annoying delay on the way to the climax execution. These questions can raise unnecessary doubts in the minds of people and spoil dramatic effect, so diligently created. Another peculiar feature of mass medias covering the death issue is the lack of defensive evidence, if any pre sented to the wide audience. The main line of narration is usually lead from the part of prosecution they have more TV air and spaces in the magazines and newspapers. Defense doesnt have these privileges. Very seldom journalists try to show compassion to criminals. Another interesting feature is that mass media tries to avoid the direct formulations, when talking about the death itself, trying to use phrases like came to meet death, went to his final journey, etc. They are usually afraid to minimize the sufferings of the victim, by showing any humanity to putative criminal. To be just, there are rare cases, when the topic innocent person unfairly condemned is speculated, but these cases are rare and cannot be regarded as general tendency. The role of denunciator conflicts with medias role of impartial chronicles. Complicated or ambiguous cases are not so popular among the media, as they need context, complex explanations and event chains and let multi-faceted interpretations. Media becomes a transitional point, which passes emotion from the courtroom to average observer. We get a loop here trying to answer the needs of the audience, mass media tries to search for the facts, which wou ld appeal most of all to this public. At the same time, collecting such facts, media influences public opinion. The main difficulty lies in the fact, that media prefers a selective depiction of events and the selective emotional background for their coverage. Feelings of compassion, mercy and sorrow to victims arent accompanied by even the smallest effort to display compassion to the convicted person. The crime and criminal himself become the incarnation of encroachment on the social legislative norms and stability. Chapter II: Case Laws Relating To Capital Punishment Execution In India 2.1 Dhananjoy Chatterjee alias Dhana v. State of West Bengal.  [11]   The measure of punishment in a given case must depend upon the atrocity of the crime; the conduct of the criminal and the defenceless state of the victim. Justice demands that the courts should impose punishment befitting the crime so that the courts reflect public abhorrence of the crime. The courts must not only keep in view the rights of the criminal but also the rights of victim of crime and the society at large while considering imposition of appropriate punishment  [12]   2.2 Sushil Murmu v. State of Jharkhand  [13]. In this case, the S.C. was called upon to adjudge the proprietary of death sentence for sacrificing a nine year old child in the most brutal manner. The child was killed in a grotesque and revolting manner. The court declared that the case at hand falls in rarest of rare category of cases. It, therefore, upheld the death sentence awarded to the convict. 2.3 State of Maharashtra v. Ajmal Aamir Kasab. In this case quarters of media have tremendously supported the execution of Kasab and there are others who vehemently oppose the execution. The points against the execution are Capital punishment is a barbaric remnant of an uncivilized society. It is immoral in principle, and unfair and discriminatory in practice. The judgment is still pending before the H.C. 2.4 Jai Kumar v State of Madhya Pradesh  [14]   In this case the accused Jai Kumar was sentenced to death by the trial court for having killed his sister-in-law, who was pregnant, and her eight-year old daughter in the night of 7 January 1997, allegedly for the reason that he had become enraged because his sister-in-law had not given him enough food. However, his own mother tendered evidence that he had made an attempt to rape the deceased sister-in-law, and encountering resistance from her, committed the crime. The manner in which he committed the offence was gruesome. He locked his mother inside a room, and thereafter went into the room of the deceased by removing the bricks near the door, going into the room and killing her. After that he decapitated her head and hung it from a tree in a jungle nearby. He had also taken the eight-year old daughter of the deceased and killed her with an axe saying that he was offering her as a sacrifice to Mahuva Maharaj and thereafter buried her in sand, covered with stones. The Supreme Court n oted that the mitigating factors were hardly sufficient to balance out the aggravating circumstances. In the present case, the savage nature of the crime has shocked our judicial conscience. The murder was cold-blooded and brutal without any provocation. It certainly makes it a rarest of rare case in which there are no mitigating or extenuating circumstances.  [15]   2.5 Suresh Chandra Bahri v State of Bihar  [16]   In this case, the accused was alleged to have conspired with several others to kill one Suresh Bahris wife and two young children. The main grouse that Suresh Bahri had against his wife was that she was interfering in his property dealings and wanted to sell their Ranchi house so that they could migrate to America with the sale proceeds and settle there with the children. The main accused enticed her to come to Ranchi from Delhi on the pretext that a sale deed for selling the house was to be executed on 11th October, 1983, and killed her on the night of the 10 October itself. The evidence disclosed that the murder was committed in an extremely brutal, diabolical, gruesome manner. Her body was then cut into two and disposed. Similarly, the two children were taken to a farm house after telling them that they were going for a pleasure trip, and killed there. Their bodies were cut into pieces and thrown into Varuna River. Considering the fact that it was the father himself who had commit ted such gruesome murder, the Supreme Court confirmed the death sentence as the matter came into the rarest of rare categories. 2.6 Jagdish v. State of Madhya Pradesh In Jagdish v. State of Madhya Pradesh,  [17]  the apex court quoted the US Supreme Court and was of the view that, the cruelty of capital punishment lies not only in the execution itself and the pain incident thereto, but also in the dehumanizing effects of the lengthy imprisonment prior to execution and that the prospect of pending execution exacts a frightful toll during the inevitable long wait between the imposition of sentence and the actual infliction of death.  [18]   The Supreme Court quoted a few decided cases in this case as well.   In T.V.Vatheeswaran v. State of Tamil Nadu  [19]  and  Ediga Anamma v. State of Andhra Pradesh  [20]  it has been held that a delay of two years was permissible beyond which the sentence ought to be converted to life. In Bhagwan Bux Singh. v. The State of U.P.  [21]  similar observations were made with respect to a delay of two and a half years and in Sadhu Singh v. State of U.P.  [22]  to a delay of three and a half years.   2.7 Vivian Rodrick v. The State of West Bengal In Vivian Rodrick v. The State of West Bengal,  [23]  the Supreme Court said that, It seems to us that the extremely excessive delay in the disposal of the case of the appellant would by itself be sufficient for imposing a lesser sentence of imprisonment for life under Section 302. Section 302, IPC prescribes two alternate sentences, namely, death sentence or imprisonment for life, and when there has been inordinate delay in the disposal of the appeal by the High Court it seems to us that it is a relevant factor for the High Court to take into consideration for imposing the lesser sentence. In this particular case, as pointed out above, the appellant was committed to trial by the Presidency Magistrate as early as July 31, 1963, and he was convicted by the Trial Judge on September 4, 1964. It is now January 1971, and the appellant has been for more than six years under the fear of sentence of death. This must have caused him unimaginable mental agony. In our opinion, it would be inhuman to make him suffer till the Government decides the matter on a mercy petition. W e consider that this now a fit case for awarding the sentence of imprisonment for life. Accordingly, we accept the appeal, set aside the order of the High Court awarding death sentence and award a sentence of imprisonment for life. The sentences under Section 148, IPC and Section 5 of the Explosive Substances Act   Chapter III: Jurisprudential and Sociological Aspects 3.1 Jurisprudential Aspects Everyone has an inalienable human right to life, even those who commit murder; sentencing a person to death and executing them violates that right. This is very similar to the value of life argument, but approached from the perspective of human rights. The counter-argument is that a person can, by their actions, forfeit human rights, and that murderers forfeit their right to life. Another example will make this clear a person forfeits their right to life if they start a murderous attack and the only way the victim can save their own life is by killing the attacker. The medieval philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas made this point very clearly: Therefore if any man is dangerous to the community and is subverting it by some sin, the treatment to be commended is his execution in order to preserve the common good Therefore to kill a man who retains his natural worthiness is intrinsically evil, although it may be justifiable to kill a sinner just as it is to kill a beast, for, as Aristotle points out, an evil man is worse than a beast and more harmful.  [24]   Aquinas is saying that certain contexts change a bad act (killing) into a good act (killing to repair the violation of justice done by the person killed, and killing a person who has forfeited their natural worthiness by killing). The most common and most cogent argument against capital punishment is that sooner or later, innocent people will get killed, because of mistakes or flaws in the justice system. Witnesses, (where they are part of the process), prosecutors and jurors can all make mistakes. When this is coupled with flaws in the system it is inevitable that innocent people will be convicted of crimes. Where capital punishment is used such mistakes cannot be put right. There is ample evidence that such mistakes are possible in the USA, 116 people sentenced to death have been found innocent since 1973 and released from death row. The average time on death row before these exonerations was 9 years. Things were made worse in the USA when the Supreme Court refused to hold explicitly that the execution of a defendant in the face of significant evidence of innocence would be unconstitutional. However many US lawyers believe that in practice the court would not permit an execution in a case demonstrating persuasive evidence of actual innocence. 3.2 Sociological Aspects If we look from a sociologist perspective, it is an accepted notion that, the criminal should be punished less, but punished better. Killing him would be a very extreme form of punishment and would not serve any ends. It is neither beneficial to the society nor to the criminal. Michel Foucault, a well known sociologist, says that the criminals must be Disciplined and Punished (D and P). According to him, D and P is a study of the development of the gentler modern way of imprisoning criminals rather than torturing or killing them.  [25]  He pointed to the shift, which took place at the turn of the 18th century, from punishment as the public infliction of pain to punishment as incarceration. While recognizing the element of genuinely enlightened reform, he particularly emphasizes how such reform also becomes a vehicle of more effective control: to punish less, perhaps; but certainly to punish better.  [26]   The Supreme Court in the case of Jagdish v. State of Madhya Pradesh,  [27]  relied on a sociologists opinion. The court quoted Robert Johnson, Death row is barren and uninviting. The death row inmate must contend with a segregated environment marked by immobility, reduced stimulation, and the prospect of harassment by staff. There is also the risk that visits from loved ones will become increasingly rate, for the man who is civilly dead is often abandoned by the living. The condemned prisoners ordeal is usually a lonely one and must be met largely through his own resources. The uncertainties of his case pending appeals, unanswered bids for commutation, possible changes in the law may aggravate adjustment problems. A continuing and pressing concern is whether one will join the substantial minority who obtain a reprieve or will be counted among the to-be-dead. Uncertainty may make the dilemma of the death row inmate more complicated than simply choosing between maintaining hope or surrendering to despair. The condemned can afford neither alternative, but must nurture both a desire to life and an acceptance of imminent death . As revealed in the suffering of terminally ill patients, this is an extremely difficult task, one in which resources afforded by family or those within the institutional context may prove critical to the personss adjustment. The death row inmate must achieve equilibrium with few coping supports. In the process, he must somehow maintain his dignity and integrity. Death row is a prison within a prison, physically and socially isolated from the prison community and the outside world. Condemned prisoners life twenty-three and one-half hours alone in their cells..  [28]   Penologists and medical experts agreed that the process of carrying out a verdict of death is often as degrading and brutalizing to the human spirit as to constitute psychological torture. Relying on Coleman vs. Balkcom,  [29]  observed that the deterrent value of incarceration during that period of uncertainty may well be comparable to the consequences of the ultimate step itself and when the death penalty ceases realistically to further these purposes,..its imposition would then be the pointless and needless extinction of life with only marginal contributions to any discernible social or public purposes. A penalty with such negligible returns to the State would be patently excessive and cruel and unusual punishment violative of the Eighth Amendment. The Courts have, however, drawn a distinction whereby the accused himself has been responsible for the delay by misuse of the judicial process but the time taken by the accused in pursuing legal and constitutional remedies cannot be taken against him.   Chapter IV: Death Penalty Statutes The Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) which was first enacted in 1985 and reenacted in 1987 provides for death penalty as an alternative punishment for the commission of a terrorist act.  [30]  Despite the non-renewal of TADA by the parliament after 1995, resulting in its lapse  [31]  , a large number of trials under TADA still await completion. A death sentence recommended in the first instance by the designated court trying the case under TADA becomes final when confirmed at the next level by the Supreme Court, there being no appeal against such confirmation of sentence.  [32]   The Indian Penal Code prescribes death penalty as an alternative punishment to life imprisonment for eleven kinds of offences, the recent one being introduced by an amendment in 1993.  [33]   Section 3(2) (i) of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is another provision, which prescribes a mandatory death sentence. It states that : if an innocent member of a Scheduled Caste or of Scheduled Tribe be convicted and executed in consequence of such false or fabricated evidence, the person who gives or fabricates such evidence shall be punished with death.  [34]   The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987 provides for death penalty among the punishments that maybe imposed on any person who abets, directly or indirectly, the commission of sati. The National Security Guards Act, 1986, and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police Act, 1992 both prescribe the death sentence as an alternative punishment for defined offences committed by members of the two armed forces. The Abortive attempts by Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh to enact special laws to deal with terrorism, both providing for death penalty, are pointers to the popular belief that retribution and deterrence are desired goals of punishment. This also explains the demand by the Home Minister, in which he is stated to have the support of many state governments, that death penalty be prescribed as a punishment for rape.  [35]   The baying for blood as a shrill cry of retribution is not a new phenomena. It was not too far in the past that the Rajasthan High Court ordered the public hanging of a mother-in-law whom it found guilty of causing a dowry death.  [36]   In Mahesh v. Madhya Pradesh  [37]  , which was a case of multiple murders committed in a brutal manner, the court said : itll be a mockery of justice to permit these appellants to escape the extreme penalty of law when faced with such evidence and such cruel acts. To give the lesser punishment would be to render the justice system of this country suspect. The common man will lose faith in courts. In such cases he understands and appreciates the language of deterrence more than the reformative jargon. Chapter V: Capital Punishment, Execution Publicity Punishment is not inflicted by a rational man for the sake of the crime that has been committed; after all one cannot undo what is past, but for the sake of the future, to prevent either the same man or, by the spectacle of his punishment, someone else, from doing wrong again. Healthy debate persists as to the deterrent effect of capital punishment. Although an expansive and diverse body of research has accumulated that examines the effect of executions or execution publicity on murder rates, this research affords few definitive conclusions. On one hand, there is evidence that executions reduce murder levels. On the other hand, several studies fail to discern convincing evidence of a relationship. Still others find a positive association. These inconsistencies in the literature raise methodological issues, some of which are grounded in theoretical arguments. Perhaps the most serious concern is specifying the true nature of the causal relationship between capital punishment and murder rates. Most previous studies estimated only unidirectional relationships. The question of salience, however, is whether recursive models portray the relations among the variables of interest accurately. Another issue relates to the geographical unit of analysis best suited for evincing deterrence effects. Whereas most prior studies relied on state or national level data to assess the deterrent effect of capital punishment, a high level of aggregation may not fully capture the ecological dynamics that are hypothesized to underlie deterrence theory.  [38]   With the emergence of the media as a powerful source of information and education, its role in the dispensation of justice has also become significant. The judiciary and media have rather become partners in dispensation of justice as media enjoys the privilege to investigate crimes and to act as a catalyst in the dispensation of justice. Media and Justice are now synonymous; because the medias endeavour to unearth and focus on crime is primarily motivated by its cherished desire to project truth and seek justice. Media , truth, justice , are thus, inter-related.  [39]   5.1 Arguments FOR and AGAINST capital punishment, as presented by execution publicity. Capital punishment permanently removes around the worst criminals from society and should prove much safer for the rest of us than long term or permanent incarceration. It is self evident that dead criminals cannot commit any further crimes, either within prison or after escaping or after being released from it. Execution is a very real punishment rather than some form of rehabilitative treatment, the criminal is made to suffer in proportion to the offence. Although whether there is a place in a modern society for the old fashioned principal of lex talens (an eye for an eye), is a matter of personal opinion. Retribution is seen by many as an acceptable reason for the death penalty according to my survey results. It is hard to prove one way or the other because in most retentionist countries the number of people actually executed per year (as compared to those sentenced to death) is usually a very small proportion.   It would, however, seem that in those countries (e.g. Singapore) w hich almost always carry out death sentences, there is far less serious crime. This tends to indicate that the death penalty is a deterrent, but only where execution is a virtual certainty.   The death penalty is much more likely to be a deterrent where the crime requires planning and the potential criminal has time to think about the

Friday, October 25, 2019

the dead Essay -- essays research papers

â€Å"The Dead†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Some say that people never change. They may be right, but no one really knows. What people do know is that every living person has one thing in common, something that will never change. Everyone will die, there’s no way around it. Every â€Å"new† and â€Å"old† generation will succumb to the same ghastly fate. The differences in the â€Å"old† generation and â€Å"new† generation sometimes collide in life. The contrast between generations in James Joyce’s â€Å"The Dead† is similar to the contrast in the generations today. The â€Å"baby boomer† generation is the old fashioned generation preoccupied with hospitality and tradition, where as, â€Å"generation x† is the new generation, preoccupied with knowledge and intellect.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The â€Å"old† generation that James Joyce writes about is a generation of â€Å"humanity, of hospitality, of kindly humour†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (pg 127). The qualities of this generation seem to be fading away. The older generation mentions that they no longer know of any singers that were as good as those of the present time. The old generation is to be remembered with â€Å"†¦pride and affection†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (pg 127). The memories of the old will never die and will always be cherished. The old generation is good at keeping in touch with their past. They are proud of their heritage, one of which they mention is their good old Irish hospitality. The qualities of the past are qualities of passion and humanity, differing greatly from the qualities of the new generat...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Fizzy drinks Essay

Aim The aim of the experiment is to check whether pH of the chosen fizzy drink is basic, neutral or acidic. To find the answer the titration method will be used. The chosen fizzy drink will be Sprite due to its transparency (it is easy to see when the color changes during the experiment). Hypothesis Sprite will probably have acidic pH (smaller than 7) as one of ingredients is citric acid. However as it is drink used by people pH cannot be to small as it would be harmful to the human organism. As I checked pH of Sprite should oscillate somewhere around 2.75. Theory â€Å"A titration is a method of analysis that will allow you to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and therefore the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask. A buret is used to deliver the second reactant to the flask and an indicator or pH Meter is used to detect the endpoint of the reaction. A typical titration begins with a beaker or Erlenmeyer flask containing a precise volume of the reactant and a small amount of indicator, placed underneath a burette containing the reagent. By controlling the amount of reagent added to the reactant, it is possible to detect the point at which the indicator changes colour. As long as the indicator has been chosen correctly, this should also be the point where the reactant and reagent neutralise each other, and, by reading the scale on the burette, the volume of reagent can be measured. As the concentration of the reagent is known, the number of moles of reagent can be calculated (since concentration = moles / volume). Then, from the chemical equation involving the two substances, the number of moles present in the reactant can be found. Finally, by dividing the number of moles of reactant by its volume, the concentration is calculated.† In this case phenolphthalein is the indicator as it stays transparent in the acidic or neutral environment and changes its color into pink in the acidic environment. Materials – NaOH – 5g – Sprite – 125 ml – Phenolphthalein – Distillated water 250ml Apparatus – balance – burette – spatula – Erlenmeyer flask – Beaker – Cylinder Variables – volume of NaOH – type of fizzy drink – volume of the fizzy drink – precision Procedure 1. Prepare all needed apparatus and substances 2. Weight 5g of solid NaOH and put it into beaker 3. Fill the beaker with 250 ml of distilled water to make 0.5 mol NaOH solution 4. Fill the burette with NaOH solution and write down to what level the burette is filled so you can later know how many of the solution was needed to neutralize fizzy drink 5. Measure 25 ml of Sprite in the cylinder 6. Put 25 ml of Sprite into the flask 7. Add to it 4 drops of phenolphthalein 8. Put the flask under the burette 9. Slowly pour the NaOH solution into the flask with Sprite 10. When the color of Sprite is pink stop the titration (it is important to be precise) 11. Write down how many NaOH solution was needed to neutralize your fizzy drink 12. Repeat steps 4-11 five times to get some more reliable results 13. After you finished your experiment neutralize NaOH solution that you still have and then clean the equipment you used during the experiment. Safety guidelines !!! – Work areas should be arranged so that a person does not need to travel through a high-hazard area while attempting to exit the laboratory during an emergency. !!! – Eyewashes and showers must be accessible to all chemical laboratories. !!! – Do not consume food and drink in the laboratory. !!! – Wear your googles and gloves to protect your eyes and skin !!! – Move in the labolatory carefully !!! – Keep the labolatory clean in order to prevent any accidents !!! – Pay particular attention to the protection of eyes and skin because NaOH can couse damage to your. !!! – Confine long hair while working in a labolatory. !!! – Do not panic if you have done something in a wrong way, just report your teacher and do what he/she has said !!! – Flush away all accidentally spilled substances with water and report your teacher !!! – Neutralize the remaining substances and remove them from equipment !!! – Wear your gown while working in lab Data Collection number of the test Initial quantity of NaOH solution in burette (in ml) Final quantity of NaOH solution in burette(in ml) Quantity of NaOH solution used to neutralize fizzy drink(in ml) Table 1. data collected during the experiment Data Processing and Presentation In order to find the pH of Sprite at first the average quantity of NaOH solution used to neutralize the fizzy drink has to be calculated: ml In order to make some other calculations ml has to be changed to dm3 1 dm3 = 1000 ml Hence: 5.18/1000 = 0.00518 dm3 Next the number of moles of NaOH solution used in the experiment has to be determined from the formula Where: n is number of moles C is molar concentration V is volume in dm3 Hence: Next the number of H+ ions in the solution has to be determined using the following formula: , where [H+] is the molar concentration n is number of moles of H+ ions V is the volume of the solution As number of moles of OH- ions in the solution is equal to the number of moles of H+ ions, nH+ = nOH- = 0.00259mol By knowing this pH of Sprite can be calculated by using the formula below: pH = -log[H+] pH = -log0.1036 pH = 0.98464 Conclusions The result obtained in the experiment differs a lot from the reality (pH is approximately 2.75). Even not knowing the proper value of pH of Sprite it is rather obvious that the result is wrong as no substance drank by human can have such a little pH. This would destroy our organism and therefore could not be sold as a fizzy drink. The percentage error equals: This is a huge difference and it can be explained by a number of reasons: 1. we did not catch the exact moment of neutralization but the moment, when the mixture was already basic so, this difference in time can be crucial 2. little differences in measurements during the experiment could also be the cause of mistake 3. the time when the color of phenolphthalein did not disappear could be measured wrong and that can be another cause of mistake Summing up these sources of mistake could not change the result in such a great extend – 279%. Although the results of the experiment were imprecise, the aim was partially achieved. Sprite was proved to have acidic pH. Evaluation The experiment could be done on some greater amounts of Sprite so that the results would be more precise. Although 5 tests were made, maybe some more should be done to make the data collected during the experiment more reliable. Besides that it is hard to find some other ways to make the experiment better or more reliable as the titration method is quite precise and the results should not differ much from the reality. Sources: – â€Å"Chemistry for the IB Diploma (standard and higher level)† by Geoff Neuss – â€Å"Chemistry† (second edition) by John Green and Sandru Damji – entry: titration

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

stuff the tigers Essays

stuff the tigers Essays stuff the tigers Essay stuff the tigers Essay Dear Editor, Im a regular newspaper reader. Recently I stumbled upon Jeremy Clarksons article about tigers. Upon reading it I discovered that I strongly disagree with some of his ideas and points of view and the way in which he writes them. On a personal level I am also fond of these wild animals, which gives me reasons to criticise this article. I can understand that it is difficult to find a rather engaging topic for the readers, especially for the younger audiences. However, this article crosses all of the delicate boundaries that a newspaper is expected to adhere to. It is clear to me, and I am sure o many of your other loyal readers, that the author expresses his views in an offensive way and belittles this sensitive issue by using inappropriate sarcasm. This can clearly be seen from the beginning of the article; the title Stuff The Tigers not only shows Mr. Clarksons personal attitudes to all living creatures and the world itself but also uses language to create humour to address a topic that is clearly not humorous. By using a pun on the word stuff he is making an insensitive start to his article. While this may appeal to a younger audience, those more educated will find it offensive. I am not against his article, every person is allowed to have her or his own opinion. However, the author talks about the animals as if they are non-living objects. Is it a correct point of view? I do not believe so. Animals are living creatures that are a part of our environment, not as Clarkson thinks as irrelevant as the death of a faraway star. They deserve to be treated with respect. All creatures on this planet have their own purpose and it is not up to us to decide whether they live or die. As the most developed and intelligent species, it is our duty to preserve nature. What is more, it is not that hard to save the tigers from xtinction, but clearly Mr. Clarkson cares nothing for their disappearance and the little effort it would take to make a difference. Extinction of any species is a global, environmental problem and one of the most important issues to face the world. It should be concerning all countries. However, from the opening line Jeremy Clarkson places blame mostly with particular countries i. e. China without a reasonable cause; As the population of China becomes more wealthy. Clarkson also suggests that it is generally thought that traditional Chinese medicine involves killing tigers 600million Chinese people believe will cure any umber of ailments. Even if this is so, why doesnt he admit the Chinese also contribute significantly to wildlife conservation? Or that this is a decreasing problem? Mr. Clarkson also writes; Apart from for a few impotent middle-class Chinamen, the extinction makes not the slightest bit of difference if Johnny tiger dies out. The author makes his feelings crystal clear, and it is a sad state of affairs if he is correct. Clarkson makes extinction seem unimportant. He implies that it is not even our concern; l nave never seen any numDer 0T creatures tnat I Know to exlst. so wny should I care if my children never see a tiger?. Here I disagree entirely. If we let all creatures die, who would maintain the essential balance that our planet so badly needs? Personally I do not have an answer. Probably Jeremy Clarkson with his despicable article knows He also mentions that the tigers provide business opportunities; demand for illegal tiger parts is booming. However, I understand that poor communities might feel the need to hunt as the way to survive which is more than Clarkson seems to acknowledge. More often then not, though, this is done because of greed and enormous profits and it is this that we need to prevent in order to prevent the xtinction of tigers. Here is another interesting point Clarkson raises which leaves me divided; Animals become extinct naturally like the brontosaurus. While I agree that some animal deaths are natural, how can the extinction of tigers be natural, if the creatures are being poached? This is not an understandable reason for their disappearance as whole. When the animals do not die naturally, they are not able to breed which leads to the extinction of the species. This is man-made problem not a natural one. Although many of his arguments are presented as questions, And what e supposed to do exactly? , Mr. Clarkson might have influenced your opinion on this issue by his presentation of the issues in a friendly tone, So why should I care if my children never see a tiger? , and humorous manner, eco mentalists. Probably he wants to manipulate us using his humor and the way of writing and I am surprised at your newspaper for allowing this to happen when it concerns a serious topic. He also uses exaggeration ( we are told the polar bear is now at risk and as a result were all supposed to kill ourselves) and these methods create the biggest impact on eaders, making them believe his arguments are more trustworthy than they are in reality. The only creatures that really matter are those in our social group said Jeremy Clarkson. He persuades the readers that nothing wrong and awful will happen if one type of species becomes extinct. However, we are all part of a balanced eco-system that relies on each aspect to survive effectively. If animals become extinct there will not be the required recourses for human beings because animals are needed for products and life support. Despite all of my criticism I agree with; Between 1900 and 1919 Eco-mentalists ignore the fact that we lost most of young men in Europe and prattle on about the passing of the passenger pigeon Nothing can be worse than closed eyes on many human deaths, especially young peoples but it is not part of the argument over saving tigers; these are separate issues. In my opinion The Sunday Times should think about the opposition to Jeremy Clarksons article and consider extinction as an issue for humanity as a whole. ? «You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty?  ». -Mahatma Gandi

Monday, October 21, 2019

Glenn Beck -- A Biography of Glenn Beck

Glenn Beck A Biography of Glenn Beck Conservative Credentials: As the Obama era got underway in 2009, Glenn Lee Beck became one of the 21st Centurys most important conservative commentators, eclipsing even Rush Limbaugh and becoming the voice for modern mainstream conservatives. Becks popularity is driven by what conservative writer David Frum says is a product of the collapse of conservatism as an organized political force, and the rise of conservatism as an alienated cultural sensibility.† Evidence of Becks wide-ranging influence can be found in his battle against the liberal political organization, ACORN, and the success of his outreach enterprise, The 9/12 Project. Early Life: Beck was born on Feb. 10, 1964 to Bill and Mary Beck in Mount Vernon, Wash., where he was raised as Catholic. Becks mother, an alcoholic, drowned herself in a bay near Tacoma when Beck was just 13 years-old. That same year, he got his start in radio after winning an hour of air time in a contest on one of two radio stations in town. Shortly after his mothers death, one of his brothers-in-law committed suicide in Wyoming and another had a fatal heart attack. Bill Beck, a baker, moved his family north to Bellingham, where his son attended Sehome High School. Formative Years: After graduating high school, in the early 1980s, Beck moved from Washington to Salt Lake City, Utah and shared an apartment with a former Mormon missionary. worked in Provo for six months at K-96 and later at stations in Baltimore, Houston, Phoenix, Washington and Connecticut. At 26, he wed his first wife, to whom he was married for four years and with whom he had two daughters, Mary (who has cerebral palsy) and Hannah. Despite his early success, however, Beck soon succumbed to the same substance abusing behavior that killed his mother. He was divorced in 1990, a direct result of his alcoholism and drug abuse. Recovery: During his battle with substance abuse, Beck had been accepted to Yale as a theology major thanks, in part, to a recommendation from Sen. Joe Lieberman. Beck lasted just one semester, however, distracted by the needs of his daughter, the ongoing divorce proceedings and his ever-depleting finances. After he left Yale, his family helped him get sober by acquainting him with Alcoholics Anonymous. Soon, his life began to turn around. He met his future second wife, Tania, and, as a prerequisite for marriage, he joined the Church of Latter Day Saints. Rise to Prominence: Beck returned to talk radio during this time and over the next several years began to emerge as a conservative force, identifying himself as a Mormon with Libertarian views and a strong sense of family values. He has drawn attention for expressing his opinion on controversial issues (he is fiercely critical of Hollywood liberalism, supports of the war in Iraq, opposes multiculturalism, political correctness, euthanasia, anti-smoking regulations and overt homosexuality in TV and on film. He is also pro-life), and over the years has been a vocal supporter of Republican leadership. National Spotlight: Beck went from a local radio personality to national star very quickly. The Glenn Beck Program began in 2000 at a station in Tampa, Florida, and by January 2002, Premiere Radio Networks launched the show on 47 stations. The show then moved to Philadelphia, where it became available on more than 100 stations internationally. Beck used his show as a platform for conservative activism, organizing rallies across America, which initially included San Antonio, Cleveland, Atlanta, Valley Forge, and Tampa. In 2003, he rallied in support of George W. Bushs decision to go to war with Iraq. Television: In 2006, Beck landed a prime-time news commentary show, Glenn Beck on CNNs Headline News Channel. The show was an instant hit. The following year, he was making appearances on ABCs Good Morning America. Beck also guest-hosted Larry King Live in July 2008. By this time, Beck had the second-largest following on CNN, behind Nancy Grace. In October 2008, Beck was lured to the FOX News Channel. His show, Glenn Beck, premiered on the network the night before President Barack Obama was inaugurated. He also had a segment on the popular OReilly Factor, called At Your Beck Call. Advocacy, Activism The 9/12 Project: Since 2003, Beck has toured the nation appearing in a one-man show in which he tells his inspirational story using his unique brand of humor and infectious energy. As a conservative spokesman and American patriot, Beck organized a series of rallies for troops deployed to Iraq. Becks biggest advocacy project, however, is The 9/12 Project, which he started in March 2009. The project is dedicated to upholding nine principles and twelve values that united America in the days following the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001. The 9/12 project also has become a rallying cry for many conservatives fed up with the new Left. Beck ACORN: Following the 2008 general election, allegations surfaced that the liberal, inner-city community action group Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) had committed numerous instances of voter registration fraud in more than 10 states. After joining FOX News, Beck began do a series of reports taking a closer look at the liberal advocacy group revealing how the organization applied pressure on banks to make loans to minority and low-income borrowers and how its leadership applied Saul Alinskys Rules for Radicals. Beck continues to fight against the organizations liberal agenda. Beck President Barack Obama: For many conservatives unhappy with the direction the country has taken since Obama came to office in January 2009, Glenn Beck has become the voice of the opposition. Although he wasnt the impetus behind it, Beck has tacitly approved and vociferously supported the emergence of the national tea party movement, which developed in direct opposition to the Obama administration. While Becks assertions are always controversial he has said, for example, that Obamas health care reform package is a way to procure reparations for slavery he is likely to be a force in the conservative movement for a long time. 2016 Presidential Election During the 2016 election, Beck was a supporter of US Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) and frequently campaigned with him.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

4 Important Qualities of Women Leaders

4 Important Qualities of Women Leaders When it comes to leadership, does gender matter? Is there a difference between women leaders and men who lead? If so, what are the unique qualities of female leadership that the most effective women leaders possess, and are they unique to women? Caliper Study In 2005, a year-long study conducted by Caliper, a Princeton, New Jersey-based management consulting firm, and Aurora, a London-based organization that advances women, identified a number of characteristics that distinguish women leaders from men when it comes to qualities of leadership: Women leaders are more assertive and persuasive, have a stronger need to get things done and are more willing to take risks than male leaders... Women leaders were also found to be more empathetic and flexible, as well as stronger in interpersonal skills than their male counterparts... enabl[ing] them to read situations accurately and take information in from all sides... These women leaders are able to bring others around to their point of view... because they genuinely understand and care about where others are coming from... so that the people they are leading feel more understood, supported and valued. Four Qualities of Women Leaders The Caliper study findings are summarized into four specific statements about womens leadership qualities: Women leaders are more persuasive than their male counterparts.When feeling the sting of rejection, women leaders learn from adversity and carry on with an Ill show you attitude.Women leaders demonstrate an inclusive, team-building leadership style of problem-solving and decision making.Women leaders are more likely to ignore rules and take risks. In her book Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The Unique Female Qualities of Leadership, author Esther Wachs Book examined the careers of fourteen top female executives- among them Meg Whitman, President, and CEO of eBay- to learn what makes them so successful. What she discovered echoes the Caliper study, including a willingness to reinvent the rules; an ability to sell their visions; the determination to turn challenges into opportunities; and a focus on high touch in a high-tech business world. Conclusions This evidence that the leadership style of women in power is not simply unique, but possibly at odds with what men practice, begs the question: Do these qualities have value in the marketplace? Is this type of leadership welcomed by society and by the public and private sector? Dr. Musimbi Kanyoro, the World YWCA Secretary-General, says attitudes toward leadership are changing, and what women offer is essential: Domination as a leadership style is becoming less and less popular. There is a new growing appreciation of...those traits that women use to keep families together and to organize volunteers to unite and make change in the shared life of communities. These newly admired leadership qualities of shared leadership; nurturance and doing good for others are today not only sought after but also indeed needed to make a difference in the world....A feminine way of leading includes helping the world to understand and be principled about values that really matter. Sources:   Women Leaders Study: The Qualities That Distinguish Women Leaders., Musimbi. Challenges to Womens Leadership. Speech in honor of YWCA of Salt Lake centennial celebration. 13 July 2006.Are Women Natural Leaders, and Men†¦the Opposite? KnowledgeWharton, University of Pennsylvania 8 November 2000.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Markering launch for an international business (Nike) Assignment

Markering launch for an international business (Nike) - Assignment Example International business has, hence, become a modern jargon in the current epoch. It is the process of conducting business all over the world. Such business transactions include trading of services, goods, technology, capital and managerial knowledge between different economies (Brenner, 2013). The import and export related activities of a nation constitute its foreign trading affairs. International business expands the scope and scale of commercial activities in an economy. From the above figure, it can be stated that international trade or business has noticeably increased over time. The growth had slightly fallen during the global financial crisis of 2008. As a result, the volume of international trade has greatly influenced the external business environmental factors. Companies engaging in international business across diversified economies conduct commercial on large scales. The production and marketing strategies of these firms are globally established (Brenner, 2013). A multinational company helps to integrate the global economic system. In an international business process, the firm procures labour, finance and infrastructural services from different countries (Brenner, 2013). The process of foreign trade in dominated by companies belonging to developed rich countries. These countries possess productive resource reserves and high technological knowhow. These multinational organizations offer high prices to all the factor service owners, thereby leading the business realm in each country (Brenner, 2013). International business conducted by companies helps to enhance the employment opportunities wherein they operate (Brenner, 2013). Moreover, by providing diversified goods and services in the market, the process helps to improve living standards of the individuals therein. International business contributes towards augmenting the level of trading competition between participating countries.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Business Analysis Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Business Analysis Report - Essay Example The result is that these people have to use three different systems to do their work. Another supplier of case recording system has approached the manager of the new YOS with a view to supplying a system. The manager is interested in getting more information in relation to the current system as well as the details relating to the new supplier’s system. The findings of the investigation should be reviewed and assessed in order to facilitate a comparison of both options; their long term operational impact as well as their financial impact. A comparison should be done of both options to determine the efficiency with which each system can be operated as well as their likely financial impact on the organisation. The system which is comparatively more operationally efficient and more cost effective should be chosen. If one is more cost effective but not more operationally efficient - a cost benefit analysis would be required to determine the long term impact on the organisation. This task requires a skilled and knowledgeable business analyst with proven experience in the area. Holmes (2007) indicates that skilled and knowledgeable business analysts play a key role in tasks such as these as they are able to do the necessary investigation to better understand end users and other important information. Holmes, B. (2007). Importance of Business Analysis in Development and Implementation of Court Systems. Technology Experience Bulletin, TEB: 2007-04. [Online] Available at [Accessed 9th march

Psychological Aspects of Cybersecurity Assignment

Psychological Aspects of Cybersecurity - Assignment Example Today, when the dependency on the use of computer systems and internet technology has increased significantly, the understanding and incorporation of cyber security proves to be highly essential (â€Å"What is Cyber Security?† 2010). The present study has considered social networking as the primary focus in regard to the psychological aspects of cyber security. Social networking in the present times is used by millions of individuals as a means of remaining connected with the outer world, with friends, near and dear ones as well as for professional purposes. However, a lot of personal information is, in turn, being shared in the process that might be used by cyber attackers to spread malevolent codes, viruses, or may even access the personal information and misuse it for their own purposes (McDowell & Morda, 2011, p.1). Thus the need for cyber security arises, and this study focuses on the vulnerabilities and threats associated with social networking and having impacts on the services and the users, thus trying to determine the possible cyber security measures and the level of customer satisfaction that may be achieved. In the recent years, the use of social networks has been found to have increased significantly. There are several online social networking websites like Facebook, Myspace, YouTube, and LinkedIn, to name a few. The relative size of the addressees in these social networks is huge, which is often not known to the users of the site. Moreover, the nature of such users is also unknown. Hence individuals tend to reveal a lot of personal information. This may actually result in a number of security related threats for the members and hence for the services as well. Thus it proved to be necessary to incorporate such cyber security as to protect personal information on social networks (Hasib, 2008). When individuals post their personal information on social networks, a permanent record of the users is created that may be used

Business Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Business Policy - Essay Example It is thus dynamic in nature so that the organization earns above average returns (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2001, p. 6). Strategic management is a broad canvas, which includes strategic analysis, strategic implementation and control. It encompasses all functional areas within an organization. This paper aims to address these issues in the context of finance and marketing. For evolving appropriate corporate policies, it is imperative to do a competitive analysis. This will be done by using the SWOT and Porters five forces. SWOT analysis helps to understand internal environment of the company in terms of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and also external factors in terms of opportunities and threat. Further, as the company intends to enter into emerging markets, its global competitiveness will be examined by using the model suggested by Porter (1985), which includes five competitive forces, which determine the competitiveness of a product in a market. These forces are industr y competitions, potential entrants, substitutes, byers, and suppliers.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Analysis of Career Guidance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Analysis of Career Guidance - Essay Example These culture-specific models help in mediating career development at local levels. (ATHANASOU et al 2008). The core conceptual propositions of two of the most famous theories of learning and vocational skills development have been evaluated as follows: The Theory of Work Adjustment or person-environment correspondence theory is a theory which focuses on the difference of vocational behavior amongst individuals. In accordance with the theory, career choice and its subsequent development are viewed as a continuous process of adjustment and accommodation. This theory implies that an individual chooses a job only if its environment is in accordance with his â€Å"requirements†, while on the other hand, the environment opts for that individual which qualifies on the â€Å"requirements† of the organization. The major plus point of TWA is the fact that it develops a battery of measures to measure the various variables associated with the theory such as satisfaction, needs, ab ilities, satisfactoriness, and indexes of correspondence. However, the results of various studies conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the theory yielded mixed results. The study of Tziner, Meir, and Segal (2002) found that higher levels of performance had a strong correlation with extroverted personality style and congruence which was in accordance with the predictions of TWA. ... (ATHANASOU et al 2008). The Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities in Work Environment provides a typology framework on career interest and environment which is simple and easy to understand and is used both in career counseling and guidance. In accordance with the theory, vocational interest is perceived as an expression of an individual’s personality. Holland postulated the concept of vocational interest by six typologies, which are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional. A study conducted by Tak (2004) revealed that the arrangement of interest was not clearly hexagonal, therefore, contrary to the postulations of Holland. The general findings of another study conducted by Sverko and Babarovic (2006) revealed consistency with Holland’s circular model. The general findings from other international studies suggested that in accordance with cultural context the six interest levels tend to occupy clusters mirroring the idiosy ncratic cultural values and occupational perceptions. The most suggested arrangement was Realistic-Investigative, Artistic-Social, and Social-Enterprising-Conventional. Such an arrangement is contrary to the hexagonal arrangement postulated by Holland. (ATHANASOU et al 2008). Continuous Professional Development: Continuous Professional Development is composed of diverse dimensions which are different for different institutions and professional individuals. Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is defined as: â€Å"The systematic maintenance, improvement and broadening of knowledge and skill, and the development of personal qualities necessary for the execution of professional and technical  duties throughout the practitioner’s working life† (LORRIMAN 2003, pg 2).

Little White Lies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Little White Lies - Essay Example In view of a couple, where one engages in various affairs before they met with their current spouses, would it be right to lay the whole truth out, however dark it is? This question will be best answered by differentiating utilitarianism and Kantian ethics or deontology. Utilitarianism, by Bentham, is a theory that argues on conformation to utility principle. The theory is focused on greatest happiness, whereby, an action is right if it increases happiness and decreases pain. Deontology, on the other hand, argues on the principle of duty. A deontologist will tend to fulfill what is morally right irrespective of the consequences of his or her actions. A right action, to a deontologist is that which conforms to the moral law (Jost & Wuerth, 2011). The tale of a little white lies then focuses on a couple that has a dark past and wants to get engaged. What would be right? A dark past may range from prostitution, hardcore crime, drug abuse, and any other vices that the society morally abhors. In the case of a woman disclosing a promiscuous past to a potential lifetime partner, would it really be necessary? Would it be necessary for a man to disclose the number of first degree murders he committed before he reformed? Reasoning from my personal point of view, I would not need to disclose such information as I would hurt my partner’s feelings. Above that, the consequences of disclosing such information are unknown and might be disastrous to the relationship. Some information might lead to lack of trust or create fear in the relationship. In the case that a criminal’s past life is actually a past life or a promiscuous past life is forgotten, then such information is unnecessary in my view. According to Kantian ethics, one should act according to a categorical imperative. This entails acting in a manner that would also favor the actor in universal law. This theory subscribes to the requirement of a moral obligation in ones course of

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Business Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Business Policy - Essay Example It is thus dynamic in nature so that the organization earns above average returns (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2001, p. 6). Strategic management is a broad canvas, which includes strategic analysis, strategic implementation and control. It encompasses all functional areas within an organization. This paper aims to address these issues in the context of finance and marketing. For evolving appropriate corporate policies, it is imperative to do a competitive analysis. This will be done by using the SWOT and Porters five forces. SWOT analysis helps to understand internal environment of the company in terms of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and also external factors in terms of opportunities and threat. Further, as the company intends to enter into emerging markets, its global competitiveness will be examined by using the model suggested by Porter (1985), which includes five competitive forces, which determine the competitiveness of a product in a market. These forces are industr y competitions, potential entrants, substitutes, byers, and suppliers.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Little White Lies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Little White Lies - Essay Example In view of a couple, where one engages in various affairs before they met with their current spouses, would it be right to lay the whole truth out, however dark it is? This question will be best answered by differentiating utilitarianism and Kantian ethics or deontology. Utilitarianism, by Bentham, is a theory that argues on conformation to utility principle. The theory is focused on greatest happiness, whereby, an action is right if it increases happiness and decreases pain. Deontology, on the other hand, argues on the principle of duty. A deontologist will tend to fulfill what is morally right irrespective of the consequences of his or her actions. A right action, to a deontologist is that which conforms to the moral law (Jost & Wuerth, 2011). The tale of a little white lies then focuses on a couple that has a dark past and wants to get engaged. What would be right? A dark past may range from prostitution, hardcore crime, drug abuse, and any other vices that the society morally abhors. In the case of a woman disclosing a promiscuous past to a potential lifetime partner, would it really be necessary? Would it be necessary for a man to disclose the number of first degree murders he committed before he reformed? Reasoning from my personal point of view, I would not need to disclose such information as I would hurt my partner’s feelings. Above that, the consequences of disclosing such information are unknown and might be disastrous to the relationship. Some information might lead to lack of trust or create fear in the relationship. In the case that a criminal’s past life is actually a past life or a promiscuous past life is forgotten, then such information is unnecessary in my view. According to Kantian ethics, one should act according to a categorical imperative. This entails acting in a manner that would also favor the actor in universal law. This theory subscribes to the requirement of a moral obligation in ones course of

Superstitions in India Essay Example for Free

Superstitions in India Essay Superstitions are based on ignorance and there is no place for superstitions but in the darkness. The best way to remove superstitions is to educate the people and given them light of reason. A true knowledge of Nature and God will take the place of blind beliefs and false traditions and this only can should the death-knell of superstitions. —Samuel Smiles. Superstitions are unreasoned and irrational beliefs of the people living in the past or in the present age. When certain happenings cannot be rationally explained, people assign mysterious and inexplicable reasons for their operation. This faith of the people in irrational things takes the form of superstitions. Superstitions are, therefore, unreasoned beliefs which have a chronic kind of intensity in their evil. In old primitive times, superstitions governed the majority of people. Those days were such that it favored the growth of superstitions. Superstitions enjoyed their hey-day of glory when the civilization and science had not lighted the darkness of the ignorance of the primitive people. Lack of scientific advancement is another cause of the growth of superstitions. They find a rich soil for germination at a time and in a country where science and philosophy have not had their hold on the masses. Unenlightened people always tend to be superstitions. Undue reverence for traditions and customs prevailing in a particular society also make people superstitions in their ideas. This belief in the sacredness of time and old traditions of ancestors, keep people in the pale of superstitious thought. The tricks of the priests also exercise their unhealthy effect and people with a religious orthodoxy are prove to fall an easy prey to these superstitious agencies. Superstitions have continued to exercise their sway on all classes of people all over the world. There are certain common superstitions which are shared by all the people in the world. Belief in spirits, ghosts, and witches is a common superstition among all the people of the world. Even today belief in witches is present in India, Scotland, England, France and many other countries. People, especially in India and other countries of the East, still believe in ghosts. The cries of certain birds like owl and ravenes and mewing of cats are regarded with superstitions all over the globe. There is a very common belief that when comets are seen, they portend the death of kings or great men. When beggars die there are no comets seen. The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes. In India, every activity of life is associated with some sort of superstition. It is supposed to be bad if somebody sneezes behind or calls back a man who is leaving his home for a journey. He must stop for a while to let the ill-luck pass. It is again ominous if he sees an empty vessel or a broom right in front of the house. The story of Ram Chandra, coming across a snake on the left hand side and a jackal on the right hand side while he was coming back to his hut in the jungle is widely known. He at once guessed that some misfortune had befallen Sita. The sight of a dead body or a cow feeding her calf or a full pitcher is considered as auspicious while one is on a journey. Stories of ghosts and evil spirits are very common in all the countries of the world and especially in India. After death, a person changes into a ghost. Sometimes, a ghost molests the other members of the family generally, a pipal tree is supposed to be the haunt of ghosts. The fear of ghosts is so great that some people worship them in their homes without giving them any shape and form. The ghosts are offered sweets, cakes, clothes and many such Other articles to please them and bribe them against doing any kind of harm to the people. Generally, the illiterate and ignorant people believe in superstitions. In villages, the people believe that small-pox, cholera and some fevers all are caused by the displeasure of he-ghosts and she-ghosts. The small pox, whenever it spreads in the form of epidemic, is supposed to be the result of the wrath of the Goddess Shitaladevi. Numerous beliefs of this type are prevalent in villages. Sometimes, such miracles take place in the cure of such diseases that one is surprised at and compelled to believe in these superstitions. Indians have a blind belief in, Sadhus though the cases of cheating by the Sadhus are generally heard. The ashes given by the Sadhus to their devotees are considered as something extraordinarily holy. The tradition of observing Terahvi in Indian families is another superstition. Hindus believe that souls of the dead persons exist in some form or the other for about eleven days in the family. The family becomes free form the impurity of death on the twelfth day. On this day Brahmins are fed and given charities to give peace to departed soul. These acts of giving charities to the Brahmins and feeding them or repeated every year in the month of Kwar. This observance is called Shradha. People have a great faith in palmistry, astrology and horoscope. There may be some experts in them here and there but generally, we come across, cheats, who exploit innocent persons and befool them. Superstitions differ from place to place and caste to caste. In South India, the sight of a black cat, crossing the way in front of one is considered to be very inauspicious. In Punjab, the sight of a Brahmin right in the morning is supposed to bring one misfortune for the whole day. But a Brahmin is not looked upon as inauspicious elsewhere. The sight of a cobbler, oilmen or washer man bring ill-lack to one in U. P. ut not in Punjab, It should not be surprising that some of English superstitions are very similar to certain superstitions prevalent in India. But in England and India the following of a dog at night without any apparent cause is supposed to indicate the presence of a spirit nearby. As in Indian villages, people believe in witches, so do the people of England and Wales who live in remote villages. The only panacea for all the social evils like superstitions is education. To make the backward and superstition minded Indians enlightened, education should be spread widely. Education cultivates reasoning and thinking in a human being and as soon as a person comes under the shelter of reason and scientific outlook, he or she, becomes free from blind beliefs. Indians by nature are fatalists and they do not apply their energy to work for the betterment of their lot. This is the greatest superstition which has undermined and is still undermining the real prosperity of India. People should be properly educated and should be inspired to be hard working and honest. Then, we should judge everything by the strong light of reason, having firm faith in God.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Vulnerable Population Health

Vulnerable Population Health Introduction Vulnerable population has become a burden for the United States as because their lacks of economic stability, improper health care service, social ignorance and so many other controversial factors. As they are considered as an important portion of the total U.S. population, thats why they are to be treated equally compared to the other U.S. citizens. One of the complex issues in their current situation is their health related problems. Their mental health problem and the drug abuse are two issues that have made them out of success. The goal set by the U.S. department of health and human services named â€Å"healthy people 2010 goals† is largely depends on this vulnerable population. Furthermore, in addition others things are also becoming obstacle to get the success. Hispanics and African American represent a large portion of entire U.S. population. Hispanics generally come from the Latin countries and Africa American from the content Africa. But the most important fact is that, among them a huge number of people are homeless and it is to be said the self-contradictory characteristic of U.S. the richest country of the world. These communities are suffering from improper health care services and have the high tendency to suicide. Their education background is also vulnerable compared to the whites. In this case the nurses can play a major role in regarding both providing the better health care services and educate this vulnerable population. There are also some other health related problems that can be solved by making a positive atmosphere by the nurses. The nurses need to know and understand in what circumstances they will act and how they will do that. The homeless population is a social group considered as a vulnerable because these homeless are at an increased risk for adverse health-related outcomes. Recognize and understand the homelessness and the relationship From the last two decades a good number of American cities experienced epidemics which challenged some beliefs. These people are concerned for affecting with HIV, violence, substance abuse, asthma, infant mortality or so many others factor. The vulnerable population is to be said the most sufferers in this case. However, there are a lot of complexities in regarding the health issues from the perspective of this population. Now, in America ‘a huge number of homeless people is a huge headache for the government as well as for the health and human services. This homeless inner city Spanish people are not only poor but also weak in health. According to the ‘human Rights Record of the United States in 2005, US has 727,304 homeless people nationwide. It reminds tha t one in every 400 Americans are living without home. The Los Angeles, according to the statistics is the capital of homeless people. The United States dubs that it is the worlds richest country, but the report given by the London school of Economics represents that U.S is has the highest poverty rate among the developed countries. This report also says that U.S. has the worst social inequality. Among them the Hispanics are at the top of the list. Now this community includes approximately 35.3 million people. By 2050, approximately 102 million Hispanics will reside in the United States which is nearly 24.5 percent of the total U.S. population. So it is needless to mention that if Hispanics experience poorer health status, then the expected demographic change will magnify the adverse economic, social, and health impact of such disparities in the United States. (J. Pumariega n.d.). Hispanic origin women can be from any race. According to estimation the Hispanic includes 63 percent Mex ican American, 14 percent central and South Americans, 11 percent Puerto Ricans and the rest 8 percent are from other. Among them 90 percent resides at the urban areas and 70 percent concentrated in 6 states-California, Texas, New York, Florida, New Jersey and Illinois. Black or African American are second at the list of vulnerable population in the United States. This origin has more undetected diseases and more chronic diseases comparatively to the whites. Inadequate housing, dangerous job and improper medical care represents the limited access of African American to the prerequisites for improved and safety health status includes better education, higher incomes and use of health care services as needed. Various types of risk factors are also involved in the daily activities of this population. â€Å"U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2010 goals† has provided several instructions in regarding to the health issues of this vulnerable population. The large portions of this vulnerable population are suffering from mental, psychiatric and substance abuse problem. Besides this the drug problem should be mentioned if health related factors described. The Hispanics are more than two times more likely than whites to indicate current drug abuse. So, such types of problems lead to a number of big problems that is quite impossible to handle. To improve and develop the health of this population, the nurses can keep a major role strongly. The nurses need to understand the various nursing environment and they should response in accordance with the environment. In the environment of vulnerable population the nurses expand their knowledge base in leaps and bounds. The nurses need to be supported into this field and others. Health issues Mental problem The previous study found that the ratio of homeless people is highest among the Hispanics. As these Hispanics are homeless, they suffer from various kinds of mental problems and that is a national concern as well. Hence, the street beggars and those sleeping in public places have increased among the Hispanics. Homeless people are in want of emotional support, caring professionals and help that work within their frame of reality. Notably, each homeless group has different demographics and health needs. There are some denominators that are the obstacles in regarding to access health care. Nurses are the best effective means of serving the needs of these homeless people. Nurse-managed clinics can be a better solution to provide these needs and wants. However, with the help of these clinics homeless people can get continuity of care, suitable follow up, and teaching to aid in illness prevention. The freer clinic needs to be established so that the nurses can provide and meet the health n eeds and of homeless community. Among the Hispanics the mental, psychiatric and substance abuse problem has described as one of the problem of health issues. Another problem is the drug abuse problem. Several recent reports and researches provide the identified problems in access to and caring services that affects the Hispanics groups. The 2006 national healthcare Disparities report says that Hispanics scored lower that European American on 90% of access measures. (Armando W. 2007 et all) The focused research of this report is to improve the systems of care in order to deliver more equitable services. But the question is who will provide this desired service to this population and how they will do it. Point to be noted; â€Å"only 1% of licensedpsychologists and American Psychological Association membersare Hispanic†. (Armando W. 2007 et all). So, generally they are not in the field of getting proper support in their mental problems. It is known that the Hispanics are not efficient in speaking English. So when they conduct with the health service provider then as expected they got lower facilities because of language barriers. However, who are expert in English get more facilities and most severe symptom ratings, followed by those who spoke only English or only Spanish during the interview. Health insurance is a critical issue in Hispanic health factors. One third of the Hispanic population lacks it, which is double the national average. Hispanics comprises the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. The previous study found that â€Å"Mexican immigrants had considerably lower lifetime prevalence rates of major mental disorders than did-U.S. born Mexican Americans.†(R. Lopez, 2000). There are some demographic and risk factors in the perspective of Hispanic vulnerable population. The prevalence of mental health problems varied by racial or ethnic group. Among State prisoners, 62% of white inmates, compared to 55% of blacks and 46% of Hispanics, were found to have a mental health problem.(J. James E. Glaze, 2006) Among Hispanics Americans fewer than 1 in 11 do contact with specialist and 1 in 5 contact general health care provider. One national study found that only 24 percent of Hispanics received appropriate care compared to 34 percent of whites. What nurses can do The psychiatric-mental health nurses are efficient and educationally prepared to provide the full range of health services. The primary mental health care services are the first needs to face the challenges. To do so, some especial educational programs should be provided to the nurse practitioners.teh psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner is advanced practice registered nurses who focus to develop the psychiatric disorders or mental health problem. They provide the wide range of settings to the patients who are seeking primary mental health services. The promotion of optimal mental health, prevention and treatment of mental health problem are the function of these nurses. They play a vital role in assisting people to identify the causes of the possible results of stress. Nursing care can be delivered on a one to one basis. The mental health nurses play a key role in the primary health care team efficiently. They are also expert in health education and promotion, seeking the ge neral public Substance abuse Substance abuse refers to the abuse of drugs or alcohol that is primarily illicit. Hispanics are mostly known as â€Å"hard-to-reach† population in the context of health communication. Drug use among Hispanics has a sparse which is vastly higher than among who are surrounded by their own culture. Drug abuse among the Hispanics is another concern for the government as well as for the future generation. The following are the risk factors in regarding to the drug abuse among the Hispanics in United States. Rates for illicit drug abuse and dependence are highest for Hispanics (7.8%). Hispanic adolescents are more likely to abuse drugs; especially crack cocaine, heroin, and ‘ice, than are adolescents from other ethnic groups. An overview of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2010 goals Healthy people 2010 is planned to achieve two overarching goals: Increase quality and years of healthy life The first step of â€Å"healthy people 2010† is to help individuals of all ages increase life expectancy and improve their quality of life. Eliminate health disparities: The second goal of healthy people 2010 is eliminate the health disparities among different segment of the population. ‘Healthy People 2010 is a set of health objectives for the Nation to achieve over the first decade of the new century. It can be used by many different people, States, communities, professional organizations, and others to help them develop programs to improve health. Healthy People 2010 builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades. The 1979 Surgeon Generals Report, Healthy People, and Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives both established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of State and community plans. Like its predecessors, Healthy People 2010 was developed through a broad consultation process, built on the best scientific knowledge and designed to measure programs over time. Healthy people objectives have been designed by the congress as the evaluation for assessing the development of the Indian health care improvement act. What nurses can do in regarding homeless Hispanics or African American and their mental health problem Mental health nurses advocate in collaboration with psychiatrists and the other practitioners to provide services as for example monitoring the Hispanics patient, mental state, managing medication and developing the links to other health care professionals and clinical service providers. Their providing services are in a range of setting and are provided at little or no cost to the patient. The homeless Hispanics and African American both are growing rapidly in context of population. They are not only growing but also their mental health is dis-improving day by day as they are considered as vulnerable population. It has been mentioned earlier that Hispanics are the largest minority community in the United States. The percentage of homeless African American is also high in United States. They are also vulnerable because of most of them are homeless and suffering from controversial mental health problem. They do feel some bad feelings about their origin root and thats why they are still in back position. In this regard, the nurses can play a major role to manipulate this community to improve their mental health. Mentality is the drive that influences people toward every outcome whether it is positive or negative. Hence, the nurses role in educating the Hispanics homeless population about how to access health care and addresses their health needs should be reflected in a systematic manner. The nurses can make them understood about the benefit of better health that will make them established at their desired level. There are a lot of people among the Hispanics who are not able to say or understand the English. In this case, the nurses have a better opportunity to teach them about the benefit of speaking English. Whenever you talk about the vulnerable or homeless people then the word needs to mention. The racial issue is a very sophisticated factor in regarding the vulnerable population. It does reflect the whole picture of vulnerable population in America. The vulnerable population should be treated in accordance with the proper plan and therefore, there also should not be any complexity. Notably, here needs to talk about the nursing aids and its function. Nursing aids is to care for physically or mentally weak, injured, disabled, and mental health setting. Nursing aids is applicable for those who are in need of a long term care. Their specialty is defined by their specific care. In context of homeless Hispanics, these nursing aids should be implemented to get the better result and overcome the problem existed among this community. The nursing aids help elderly or disabled person live in their own home instead of health care facilities. The nurses can give the instruction about how the homeless Hispanics can lead a better life after being educated and having a good health. Therefore, the better health is needed to fulfill the goals set by the â€Å"healthy people 2010† project. Lower rates of health care use by Hispanics judge against with non-Hispanics white person-in context of hospitalization, physician visit, prescribed medicine, and specific preventive service—have been found. A numerous studies found differences in culturally based attitudes in regarding health care and barriers presented by language. It has been also found that Hispanics who are less assimilated into U.S. culture face more wide-ranging barriers than those who have become acculturated with U.S. culture. Hence, there is an impact on the basis of relation between culture and use of service is quite mixed. In addition, insurance status has a larger impact on use of health care services. It is duty for the nurses to identify the specific factors that affect the function of health care services for this vulnerable population. Nurses should advocate and educate this vulnerable population. Nursing around the world needs to feel the confident and the essential and significant contribution to the provision of safe, quality patient care. It is known that the nursing workforce is the largest group within the health care system. The theoretical and practical knowledge not only guide the nurses, but also the beliefs, values and personal thinking help them to emerging advance scope of practice. Homeless Hispanics are to be said the obstacle for the U.S. developing program ‘healthy people 2010 and its success. The Hispanics are suffering from different kinds of mental health problem which is day by day going to be uncontrollable. Homeless people do not get the at least primary health service in most of the cases. As it is known that by 2050, the Hispanics will be approximately 25% of the total U.S. population. So, these successes of the â€Å"U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2010 goals† are very much dependent on their health care. What nurses can do in regarding homeless Hispanics or African American and their drug abuse problem Drug abuse among the Hispanics and African American minority, is a strong concern as it has a larger impact on future generation. The people who are involved in drug abuse can be considered as patient from the medical perspective. However, drug abuse is becoming a growing distress for the U.S. government as well as for the health and human service. The qualities of substance abuse treatment are of interest to both the government and the treatment service provider. There has been a little research on treatment outcomes of Hispanics and African American in substance abuse treatment. However, Nurses have the potential to continue integrated interventions from the perspective of health care setting. The needs of the patients vary with the change of health care setting and the function of nurses as well. So, the field nurses need to clarify their roles and functions in relation to both the setting where they work and the patients to whom they deal with. The healthcare professionals need t o demonstrate the effectiveness of what they are used to do and how they do to maintain the quality of patient care. Substance abuse is to be said as the abuse of alcohol and other drugs. â€Å"Most culturally distinct groups have used and abused alcohol and other drugs throughout the ages, and they have established codes of behavior in their approach to drugs and alcohol†. Alcohol and other drugs have been used among the Hispanics or African American minority for thousands of years. Socio-cultural beliefs can shape the approach to and behavior regarding substance use and abuse. Culture plays a central role in forming the expectations of individuals about potential problems they may face with drug use. For many social groups, this may provide a protective factor. An example is the use of alcohol by the ancient Aztecs before any contact with white settlers. Their use of alcohol was heavily regulated and was only for ceremonial purposes. Non-ceremonial use of alcohol was strictly forbidden under penalty of death.3,8 Another example is the development of the peyote cult in northern Mexico. Peyote was used in a ceremonial setting to treat chronic alcohol addiction. This use later became a central part of the Native American church, which provided important spiritual treatment for chronic alcoholism. Recent research found that despite declining trends in use of drug abuse among the American youth, drug use among Hispanics youth remains alarmingly high. So in this case what the nurses can do is the million dollar question. The nurses provide their service in very practical way and for that reasons the result or outcome is always good. The African American has the highest tendency to use the drug and it is more likely in the youth generation. but the homeless African American or Hispanics are considered as the vulnerable population and they have not the ability to deal with these problem. In regarding this matter, the nurses can be used as a very effective tool. However, nurses will teach this vulnerable population about the bad effects of drug abuse and how is ruining their personal and family life as well as the society. Nurses normally meet legal issues in their place of work. However, many of them are either unaware of their significance or unable to face these issues. Since the findings of the study identify that learning at workplace has been valuable to gain knowledge about law, it is needed to identify legal issues in their workplace. This will help them to increase their efficiency because knowledge about legal issues upgrades their sense about their tasks. These issues provide direction that what needs to do or not to do. They should focus only how the problem can be removed in this area. The â€Å"healthy people 2010† is not just a dream, it is more than that and the homeless Hispanics or African American are the barriers of this dream. This dream should be reflected by the activities performed by the nurses. Conclusion: Now-a-days nursing has developed its all functional activities in accordance with technological, political or socio-economical rapid change. The changing boundaries of professional responsibility and its influence on their scope of practice have been emerged. For the effective care the nurses must all work together toward a common goal to meet the needs and serving the interest of the patient. According to the UKCC code of professional contact, clause 4 states that in the exercise of professional accountability, the registered nurse must, â€Å"Acknowledge any limitations in your knowledge and competence and decline any duties or responsibilities unless able to perform them in a safe and skilled manner.† (Turnbull Mark) However, Hispanics are becoming a large portion of U.S. population day by day and they are in need of the proper health care services. A lot of barriers are involved in regarding their health problem whether it is mental or about drug abuse. The nurses are to be said as the key element who can work together in the field to make a better move of health care services for the homeless Hispanics and African American.